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Resource Documents: Europe (33 items)

RSSEurope

Unless indicated otherwise, documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are shared here to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate. • The copyrights reside with the sources indicated. As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations.


Date added:  September 24, 2019
England, WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: Insights from lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies

Author:  Thaxter, Chris; et al.

Abstract—

  1. Wind energy generation has become an important means to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and mitigate against human‐induced climate change, but could also represent a significant human–wildlife conflict. Airborne taxa such as birds may be particularly sensitive to collision mortality with wind turbines, yet the relative vulnerability of species’ populations across their annual life cycles has not been evaluated.
  2. Using GPS telemetry, we studied the movements of lesser black‐backed gulls Larus fuscus from three UK breeding colonies through their annual cycle. We modelled the distance travelled by birds at altitudes between the minimum and maximum rotor sweep zone of turbines, combined with the probability of collision, to estimate sensitivity to collision. Sensitivity was then combined with turbine density (exposure) to evaluate spatio‐temporal vulnerability.
  3. Sensitivity was highest near to colonies during the breeding season, where a greater distance travelled by birds was in concentrated areas where they were exposed to turbines.
  4. Consequently, vulnerability was high near to colonies but was also high at some migration bottlenecks and wintering sites where, despite a reduced sensitivity, exposure to turbines was greatest.
  5. Synthesis and applications. Our framework combines bird‐borne telemetry and spatial data on the location of wind turbines to identify potential areas of conflict for migratory populations throughout their annual cycle. This approach can aid the wind farm planning process by: (a) providing sensitivity maps to inform wind farm placement, helping minimize impacts; (b) identifying areas of high vulnerability where mitigation warrants exploration; (c) highlighting potential cumulative impacts of developments over international boundaries and (d) informing the conservation status of species at protected sites. Our methods can identify pressures and linkages for populations using effect‐specific metrics that are transferable and could help resolve other human–wildlife conflicts.

Chris B. Thaxter
Viola H. Ross‐Smith
Nigel A. Clark
Greg J. Conway
Gary D. Clewley
Lee J. Barber
Niall H. K. Burton

British Trust for Ornithology, Norfolk
Willem Bouten
Computational Geo‐Ecology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Elizabeth A. Masden
Environmental Research Institute, North Highland College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Thurso, U.K.

Journal of Applied Ecology 2019; 00: 1–13
First published: 09 September 2019
doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13488

Download original document: “Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: Insights from lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies

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Date added:  September 19, 2019
Noise, Regulations, Sweden, TechnologyPrint storyE-mail story

In situ measured facade sound insulation of wind turbine sound

Author:  Thorsson, Pontus

ABSTRACT—
In most countries there are regulations of wind turbine sound level outdoors at dwellings. Often there are also regulations of the sound levels inside the dwelling, however not often directly aiming at wind turbine sound. The sound level indoors from wind turbines has attracted more interest in the latest years, and then especially in the low frequency region (up to 200 Hz). Studies on the in situ sound level difference between outside and inside of dwellings are however scarce. This paper presents the in situ measured sound level difference for two Swedish houses in rural locations, both using a loudspeaker and using the wind turbine sound as exciting signal. This is possible due to a 2 month long measurement series with simultaneous sound recordings outside and inside. The sound pressure level differences from the two methods are shown to differ substantially.

Pontus THORSSON, Akustikverkstan, Lidköping, Sweden

Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 3826-3830

Download original document: “In situ measured facade sound insulation of wind turbine sound

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Date added:  September 15, 2019
Denmark, Europe, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Noise, Regulations, TechnologyPrint storyE-mail story

Implementation of the issue of noise from wind turbines at low frequencies

Author:  Marini, Martino; et al.

ABSTRACT—
The enduring energy scenario leads to further promote the development of the exploitation of renewable energy sources. Recent European standards have been defining a path to reach in 2050 a level of decarbonization lower of 80% compared to 1990. Wind farms have been growing quickly for [the] last decade with individual wind turbines getting larger and larger. In addition to the benefits of containing greenhouse gas emissions and restraining the use of depletable resources, drawbacks have also appeared due to noise generation from wind turbines and adverse reaction of some nearby residents. The noise generated by wind turbines has a broad spectrum character but the low frequency noise causes special problems. It is a fact that in different European countries special laws have been adopted to impose noise limits and evaluation methods for the assessment of environmental low frequency noise from this kind of sound source. Other countries are still lacking specific rules but in the authorization procedure such analysis is required by environmental control agencies. The purpose of this study consists of comparing the assessment procedures currently used in different European countries for the prediction of low frequency noise from wind turbines and its propagation. The comparison of procedures gives a chance to put forward progressions in low frequency noise emission and reception.

Martino MARINI, DADU University of Sassari, Italy
Costantino Carlo MASTINO, Roberto BACCOLI, Andrea FRATTOLILLO, DICAAR University of Cagliari, Italy
Antonino DI BELLA5, DII University of Padova, Italy

Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 1441–1446

Download original document: “Implementation of the issue of noise from wind turbines at low frequencies

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Date added:  August 29, 2019
Denmark, HealthPrint storyE-mail story

Long-term wind turbine noise exposure and the risk of incident atrial fibrillation in the Danish Nurse cohort

Author:  Bräuner, Elvira; et al.

Highlights

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The potential health effects related to wind turbine noise (WTN) have received increased focus during the past decades, but evidence is sparse. We examined the association between long-term exposure to wind turbine noise and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF).

METHODS: First ever hospital admission of AF amongst 28,731 female nurses in the Danish Nurse Cohort were identified in the Danish National Patient register until ultimo 2013. WTN levels at residential addresses between 1982 and 2013 were estimated using the Nord2000 noise propagation model, as the annual means of Lden, Lday, Levening and Lnight at the most exposed façade. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the association between the 11-, 5- and 1-year rolling means of WTN levels and AF incidence.

RESULTS: 1430 nurses developed AF by end of follow-up in 2013. Mean (standard deviation) baseline residential noise levels amongst exposed nurses were 26.3 (6.7) dB and slightly higher in those who developed AF (27.3 (7.31) dB), than those who didn’t (26.2 (6.6)). We observed a 30% statistically significant increased risk (95% CI: 1.05-1.61) of AF amongst nurses exposed to long-term (11-year running mean) WTN levels ≥20 dB(A) at night compared to nurses exposed to levels <20 dB(A). Similar effects were observed with day (HR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.54), and evening (HR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.54) noise levels. CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to WTN and AF amongst female nurses. However, interpretation should be cautious as exposure levels were low.

Elvira V. Bräuner, Jeanette T. Jørgensen, Anne Katrine Duun-Henriksen, Zorana J. Andersen
Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Claus Backalarz, Jens E. Laursen, Torben H. Pedersen
DELTA Acoustics, Hørsholm, Denmark
Mette K. Simonsen
Diakonissestiftelsen; and The Parker Institute, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg, Frederiksberg, Denmark

Environ Int. 2019 Sep;130:104915. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.104915. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Download original document: “Long-term wind turbine noise exposure and the risk of incident atrial fibrillation in the Danish Nurse cohort

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