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Some important documents about industrial wind energy

[ Click here to visit the complete National Wind Watch Resource Documents Library ]

[ Click here to visit the Wind Watch Wiki ]

Selected papers   legal  |  technical  ]

“A problem with wind power” [PDF], Eric Rosenbloom

“The wayward wind” [PDF], Jon Boone

“Wind turbine syndrome” [PDF], Nina Pierpont, testimony before the New York State Legislature Energy Committee, March 7, 2006

“Wind power in West Denmark. Lessons for the UK” [RTF], Vic Mason, October 2005

Technical papers   top  |  legal  ]

The burden on other energy sources in integrating wind power – which is largely unpredictable, nondispatchable, intermittent, and highly variable – on the electricity grid cancels out much, if not all, of the theoretical benefit.

“The low benefit of industrial wind” [PDF], Eric Rosenbloom

“Less for more: the Rube Goldberg nature of industrial wind development” [PDF], Jon Boone

“A rational look a renewable energy and the implications of intermittent power” [PDF], Kimball Rasmussen, President and CEO, Deseret Power (Utah), November 2010

“Utility-scale wind power: impacts of increased penetration (working paper)” [PDF], Lawrence Pitt, G. Cornelis van Kooten, Murray Love, and Ned Djilali, Resource and Environmental Economics and Policy Analysis (REPA) Research Group, Department of Economics, University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada), June 2005

“Integrating wind power in the European power systems” [PDF], Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity

“Impact of wind power generation” [PDF], Irish National Grid

“Wind report 2004” [PDF], Eon Netz, Germany

“Wind report 2005” [PDF], Eon Netz, Germany

“Planning of the grid integration of wind energy” [PDF], German Energy Agency (Dena)

“New challenges for the transmissions system operator” [PDF], Eltra, Denmark

“Danish wind: Too good to be true?” [PDF], David J. White, The Utilities Journal, July 2004, pp. 37-39

“Why wind power works for Denmark” [PDF], Hugh Sharman, Civil Engineering 158, May 2005, pp. 66-72

“The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system” [PDF], Hannele Holttinen

“Estimation of real emissions reduction caused by wind generators” [PDF], O. Liik et al., International Energy Workshop, June 24-26, 2003, Laxenburg, Austria

Legal documents   top  |  technical  ]

Note that in the lease and easement (a.k.a. “forbearance”) agreements, the wind companies pay people to sign away their right to complain about noise, flicker, etc. – phenomena the companies insist are not a problem.

See the Contracts and Ordinances sections in the Resource Documents Library.

Also see “Wind turbine setback and noise regulations since 2010” at wndfo.net/ords.

Bethany, N.Y., Wind Turbine Study Committee Report [PDF] – Extensive research of environmental, health & safety, legal, and financial issues of large-scale wind energy installations, with recommendations

Farmersville, N.Y.: Wind Energy Facilities Law and amendments [PDFs] – height limit 455 ft, setbacks 3,000 ft to property line or well, 2,000 ft to roads, 1 mile to churches and schools including Amish homes and home schools; noise limit lower of 45 dBA at property line and 45 dBA outside dwelling or ambient + 10 dB(A), 10 dB added to nighttime (10pm–7am) levels; noise measurement specified, including C-weighted; shadow flicker on nonparticipating property limited to 8 hours/year and 1 hour/month; property value guarantee and decommissioning provisions.

Richland, N.Y.: Wind Energy Facilities Law [PDF]good section of findings; 1 mile setback to property line; 500 ft height limit; 35 db(A) noise limit at residences.

Kosciusko Country, Ind.: Zoning Ordinance: Wind Energy Conversion Systems (3.29) [PDF]setback greater of 3,960 ft or 6.5 × height to property line, right-of-way, or power line, 1 mile from community or municipality boundary; 32 dB(A) noise limit at property line; no shadow flicker on nonparticipating property; no detectable vibration in nearby structures or that could damage wells; no interference with TV, radio, GPS, etc.; property value guarantees within 2 miles; notification to all within 5 miles

Freedom, Me.: Industrial Wind Energy Facility Ordinance [PDF]13 × height setback from property line, 4 × height from public roads, 2,500 ft from special resources; sound limits 5 dBA above preconstruction ambient level, 40 dBA during day, and 35 dBA at night at property line, and 20 dBC above preconstruction ambient dBA level at property line and inside dwellings; shadow flicker limitations; decommissioning

Lyme, N.Y., Wind Energy Conversion Systems Law [PDF] – 1/2-mile setback from property lines, 1-mile setback from schools, churches, public gathering places; 30/35-dBA +18-dBC noise limit at property line

Union, Wisc., Large Wind Turbine Citizens Committee Setback Recommendations Report [PDF]

Union, Wisc., Wind Energy Systems Licensing Ordinance [PDF] – 1/2-mile setback from homes and workplaces, 35-dBA/38-dBC noise limit – very well researched and thorough

Litchfield, N.Y., Wind Energy Facilities Local Law [PDF]prohibition of all wind turbines >50 kW – thorough noise regulations and measurement standards

Rensselaerville, N.Y., Commercial Wind Power Facilities Law [DOC]prohibition of all wind turbines >100 kW – based on Wind Study Committee Recommendations Report [PDF]

Sumner, Me.: Industrial Wind Energy Facility Ordinance [PDF]1-mile setback from property line, 35-dBA/L90A+5dB noise limit, 50-dBC/L90A+15dB low-frequency noise limit, shadow flicker limitations, decommissioning

Mason County, Ky.: Wind Energy Conversion Systems Ordinance [PDF]1-mile setbacks from property line, 30-dBA/50-dBC noise limit at property line, shadow flicker limitations, decommissioning

Phillips, Me., Wind Energy Facility Ordinance [PDF]30-dBA/50-dBC noise limit at property line

Trempealeau County, Wisc.: Wind Generator and Wind Generating Facility Ordinance [PDF]1-mile setback from homes and workplaces, 40-dBA noise limit

Carteret County Tall Structure Ordinance [PDF]setback of 6 ft per ft of total height, setback measured from farthest lateral extension of blade to property line; revised 2014: 1-mile setback, 275-ft height limit, 35-dB noise limit at property line

Plympton-Wyoming, Ont.: By-law to provide for the regulation of wind turbine noise [PDF]infrasound, low-frequency noise, and amplitude modulation limits

Stafford, N.Y.: Zoning Law: Wind Energy Systems [ZIP]175-ft height limit plus decent setbacks and excellent noise limits

Newport, N.C.: Provisions for Special and Conditional Uses: Wind Energy Facilities [PDF]2,500-ft. setback from property line, 45-dBA noise limit at property line, property value protection

Cherry Valley, N.Y.: Local Law: Wind Energy Facilities [HTM]

Otsego County, Mich.: "Zoning ordinance concerning wind turbine generators and anemometer towers” [DOC]excellent setbacks

Showano County, Wisc.: "Wind Energy Conversion System Ordinance” [DOC]excellent noise limits

Malone, N.Y., town code: "Wind energy facilities” [PDF]

Manitowoc County, Wisc., "Large Wind Energy System Ordinance” [PDF]

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