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Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.


Date added:  April 24, 2019
Economics, Grid, U.S.Print storyE-mail story

Do Renewable Portfolio Standards Deliver?

Author:  Greenstone, Michael; McDowell, Richard; and Nath, Ishan

[Abstract] Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) are the largest and perhaps most popular climate policy in the US, having been enacted by 29 states and the District of Columbia. Using the most comprehensive panel data set ever compiled on program characteristics and key outcomes, we compare states that did and did not adopt RPS policies, exploiting the substantial differences in timing of adoption. The estimates indicate that 7 years after passage of an RPS program, the required renewable share of generation is 1.8 percentage points higher and average retail electricity prices are 1.3 cents per kWh, or 11% higher; the comparable figures for 12 years after adoption are a 4.2 percentage point increase in renewables’ share and a price increase of 2.0 cents per kWh or 17%. These cost estimates significantly exceed the marginal operational costs of renewables and likely reflect costs that renewables impose on the generation system, including those associated with their intermittency, higher transmission costs, and any stranded asset costs assigned to ratepayers. The estimated reduction in carbon emissions is imprecise, but, together with the price results, indicates that the cost per metric ton of CO₂ abated exceeds $130 in all specifications and ranges up to $460, making it least several times larger than conventional estimates of the social cost of carbon. These results do not rule out the possibility that RPS policies could dynamically reduce the cost of abatement in the future by causing improvements in renewable technology.

Energy Policy Institute, Becker Friedman Institute for Economics, University of Chicago, April 2019

Michael Greenstone, University of Chicago and National Bureau of Economic Research
Richard McDowell, Amazon
Ishan Nath, University of Chicago

Download original document: “Do Renewable Portfolio Standards Deliver?

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Date added:  March 18, 2019
Denmark, Health, NoisePrint storyE-mail story

Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise on Redemption of Sleep Medication and Antidepressants: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Author:  Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; et al.

BACKGROUND: Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is associated with annoyance and, potentially, sleep disturbances.

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate whether long-term WT noise (WTN) exposure is associated with the redemption of prescriptions for sleep medication and antidepressants.

METHODS: For all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20-WT heights and for 25% of randomly selected dwellings within a radius of 20-to 40-WT heights, we estimated nighttime outdoor and low-frequency (LF) indoor WTN, using information on WT type and simulated hourly wind. During follow-up from 1996 to 2013, 68,696 adults redeemed sleep medication and 82,373 redeemed antidepressants, from eligible populations of 583,968 and 584,891, respectively. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates.

RESULTS: Five-year mean outdoor nighttime WTN of ≥42 dB was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI]: 0.98, 1.33) for sleep medication and HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for antidepressants (compared with exposure to WTN of <24 dB). We found no overall association with indoor nighttime LF WTN. In age-stratified analyses, the association with outdoor nighttime WTN was strongest among persons ≥65 y of age, with HRs (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group (≥42 dB) of 1.68 (1.27, 2.21) for sleep medication and 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) for antidepressants. For indoor nighttime LF WTN, the HRs (95% CIs) among persons ≥65 y of age exposed to≥15 dB were 1.37 (0.81, 2.31) for sleep medication and 1.34 (0.80, 2.22) for antidepressants.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed high levels of outdoor WTN to be associated with redemption of sleep medication and antidepressants among the elderly, suggesting that WTN may potentially be associated with sleep and mental health.

Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N. Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jørgen Brandt, and Mette Sørensen
Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
3DTU Wind Energy, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde
Department of Natural Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Denmark
Global Center for Clean Air Research (GCARE), University of Surrey, United Kingdom

Environmental Health Perspectives, March 2019
https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3909

Download original document: “Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise on Redemption of Sleep Medication and Antidepressants: A Nationwide Cohort Study

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Date added:  March 18, 2019
Denmark, Health, NoisePrint storyE-mail story

Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise and Risk for Myocardial Infarction and Stroke: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Author:  Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; et al.

BACKGROUND: Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, raising concerns as to whether WT noise (WTN) increases risk for cardiovascular disease, as observed for traffic noise.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to WTN increases risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

METHODS: We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius 20 times the height of the closest WT and 25% of the dwellings within 20–40 times the height of the closest WT. Using data on WT type and simulated hourly wind at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency (LF) indoor WTN for each dwelling and derived 1-y and 5-y running nighttime averages. We used hospital and mortality registries to identify all incident cases of MI (n= 19,145) and stroke (n= 18,064) among all adults age 25–85 y (n= 717,453), who lived in one of these dwellings for≥one year over the period 1982–2013. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for individual- and area-level covariates.

RESULTS: IRRs for MI in association with 5-y nighttime outdoor WTN >42 (vs. <24) dB(A) and indoor LF WTN >15 (vs. <5) dB(A) were 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.62; 47 exposed cases] and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.73, 2.28; 12 exposed cases), respectively. IRRs for intermediate categories of outdoor WTN [24–30, 30–36, and 36–42 dB(A) vs. <24 dB(A)] were slightly above the null and of similar size: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.12), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.12), and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.22), respectively. For stroke, IRRs for the second and third outdoor exposure groups were similar to those for MI, but near or below the null for higher exposures.

CONCLUSIONS: We did not find convincing evidence of associations between WTN and MI or stroke.

From the Discussion:  ‘[A]lthough we found the highest levels of WTN to be associated with the highest relative risk for incident MI, numbers of highly exposed cases were small, and the associations were nonsignificant. Inverse or null associations between high exposures and stroke were also based on a small number of cases. Therefore, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions from our finding.’

Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N. Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jørgen Brandt, and Mette Sørensen
Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen
DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
Department of Natural Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Denmark
Global Center for Clean Air Research (GCARE), University of Surrey, United Kingdom

Environmental Health Perspectives, March 2019
https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3340

Download original document: “Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise and Risk for Myocardial Infarction and Stroke: A Nationwide Cohort Study

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Date added:  March 18, 2019
Denmark, Health, NoisePrint storyE-mail story

Long-term exposure to wind turbine noise at night and risk for diabetes: A nationwide cohort study

Author:  Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; et al.

Highlights

Abstract

Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, raising concerns as to whether WT noise (WTN) may negatively affect health, as reported for traffic noise. We aimed to investigate whether residential WTN is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Based on national registries, we identified all Danish dwellings situated within ≤ 20 wt heights radius and a random selection of 25% of dwellings situated within 20–40 wt heights radius of a WT. We identified 135,795 pregnant women living in the dwellings from 1982 to 2013, and collected information on gestational age and birth weight from a national birth registry. Using data on WT type and simulated hourly wind at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency (LF) indoor WTN at the dwellings of the pregnant women and aggregated as mean nighttime WTN during pregnancy. We used logistic regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates for the analyses. We did not find evidence suggesting that mean pregnancy or trimester-specific exposure to outdoor or indoor LF WTN were associated with any of the three adverse birth outcomes investigated: preterm birth (n = 13,003), term small for gestational age (n = 12,220) or term low birth weight (n = 1127). However, the number of cases in the highest exposure categories of ≥ 42 dB outdoor WTN or ≥ 15 dB indoor LF WTN were low for all outcomes (n between 0 and 31). The present study does not support an association between nighttime WTN and adverse birth outcomes. However, there were few cases in the high exposure groups and the results call for reproduction.

Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N.Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jørgen Brandt, Mette Sørensen

  • Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen
  • DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde
  • Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
  • Department of Natural Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Denmark

Environmental Research, Volume 165, August 2018, Pages 40-45
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.03.040

Download original document: “Long-term exposure to wind turbine noise at night and risk for diabetes: A nationwide cohort study

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