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Resource Documents: Germany (59 items)


Unless indicated otherwise, documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are shared here to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate. • The copyrights reside with the sources indicated. As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations.

Date added:  December 14, 2021
Germany, WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

High vulnerability of juvenile Nathusius’ pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus nathusii) at wind turbines

Author:  Kruszynski, Cecilia; Bailey, Liam; Bach, Lothar; Bach, Petra; Fritze, Marcus; Lindecke, Oliver; Teige, Tobias; and Voigt, Christian

[abstract] Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines globally, yet the specific demographic consequences of wind turbine mortality are still unclear. In this study, we compared characteristics of Nathusius’ pipistrelles (Pipistrellus nathusii) killed at wind turbines (N = 119) to those observed within the live population (N = 524) during the summer migration period in Germany. We used generalised linear mixed effects modelling to identify demographic groups most vulnerable to wind turbine mortality, including sex, age (adult or juvenile), and geographic origin (regional or long-distance migrant; depicted by fur stable hydrogen isotope ratios). Juveniles contributed with a higher proportion of carcasses at wind turbines than expected given their frequency in the live population suggesting that juvenile bats may be particularly vulnerable to wind turbine mortality. This effect varied with wind turbine density. Specifically, at low wind turbine densities, representing mostly inland areas with water bodies and forests where Nathusius’ pipistrelles breed, juveniles were found more often dead beneath turbines than expected based on their abundance in the live population. At high wind turbine densities, representing mostly coastal areas where Nathusius’ pipistrelles migrate, adults and juveniles were equally vulnerable. We found no evidence of increased vulnerability to wind turbines in either sex, yet we observed a higher proportion of females than males among carcasses as well as the live population, which may reflect a female bias in the live population most likely caused by females migrating from their north-eastern breeding areas migrating into Germany. A high mortality of females is conservation concern for this migratory bat species because it affects the annual reproduction rate of populations. A distant origin did not influence the likelihood of getting killed at wind turbines. A disproportionately high vulnerability of juveniles to wind turbine mortality may reduce juvenile recruitment, which may limit the resilience of Nathusius’ pipistrelles to environmental stressors such as climate change or habitat loss. Schemes to mitigate wind turbine mortality, such as elevated cut-in speeds, should be implemented throughout Europe to prevent population declines of Nathusius’ pipistrelles and other migratory bats.

Cecilia Kruszynski, Liam D. Bailey, Lothar Bach, Petra Bach, Marcus Fritze, Oliver Lindecke, Tobias Teige, Christian C. Voigt

Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin; Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin; Bach Freilandforschung, zoologische Gutachten, Bremen; Büro für faunistische Fachgutachten, Berlin, Germany

Ecological Applications. Published online December 7, 2021. doi: 10.1002/eap.2513

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Date added:  September 15, 2019
Denmark, Europe, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Noise, Regulations, TechnologyPrint storyE-mail story

Implementation of the issue of noise from wind turbines at low frequencies

Author:  Marini, Martino; et al.

The enduring energy scenario leads to further promote the development of the exploitation of renewable energy sources. Recent European standards have been defining a path to reach in 2050 a level of decarbonization lower of 80% compared to 1990. Wind farms have been growing quickly for [the] last decade with individual wind turbines getting larger and larger. In addition to the benefits of containing greenhouse gas emissions and restraining the use of depletable resources, drawbacks have also appeared due to noise generation from wind turbines and adverse reaction of some nearby residents. The noise generated by wind turbines has a broad spectrum character but the low frequency noise causes special problems. It is a fact that in different European countries special laws have been adopted to impose noise limits and evaluation methods for the assessment of environmental low frequency noise from this kind of sound source. Other countries are still lacking specific rules but in the authorization procedure such analysis is required by environmental control agencies. The purpose of this study consists of comparing the assessment procedures currently used in different European countries for the prediction of low frequency noise from wind turbines and its propagation. The comparison of procedures gives a chance to put forward progressions in low frequency noise emission and reception.

Martino MARINI, DADU University of Sassari, Italy
Costantino Carlo MASTINO, Roberto BACCOLI, Andrea FRATTOLILLO, DICAAR University of Cagliari, Italy
Antonino DI BELLA5, DII University of Padova, Italy

Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 1441–1446

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Date added:  February 28, 2019
Germany, WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Interference of Flying Insects and Wind Parks

Author:  Trieb, Franz


The study investigates possible coherence of flying insect losses recently discovered in Germany and insect impingement on the rotor blades of wind turbines.

Evidence from literature confirms that migrating insects select fast air streams above the turbulent surface layer of the atmosphere for the purpose of efficient displacement to breeding grounds.Wind farm developers select sites with strong winds and install high towers with rotors just above the surface layer in order to optimize the energy output of their wind turbines. As a result of this coincidence, large numbers of flying insects can be expected in wind farms.

Model calculation of the amount of insect biomass that traverses wind rotors during operation provides a first estimate of the order of magnitude of 24,000 tons of insects crossing the German wind park throughout the summer season. Based on conservative model assumptions, five percent of the insects flying through a rotor could be actually damaged. The related loss of 1,200 tons per year since more than fifteen years could be relevant for population stability.

Species flying at critical rotor heights between 20 and 220 meters above ground level in addition to those already found within this study should urgently be identified by DNA meta-barcoding of the deposits that are regularly found on rotor blades. In addition to that, wind farms should be enabled to recognize approaching insect swarms and to react accordingly for their protection and conservation.

Franz Trieb
Department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics
Stuttgart, Germany, 30.10.2018

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Date added:  January 25, 2019
Germany, Property valuesPrint storyE-mail story

Local Cost for Global Benefit: The Case of Wind Turbines

Author:  Frondel, Manuel; et al.

Given the rapid expansion of wind power capacities in Germany, this paper estimates the effects of wind turbines on house prices using real estate price data from Germany’s leading online broker. Employing a hedonic price model whose specification is informed by machine learning techniques, our methodological approach provides insights into the sources of heterogeneity in treatment effects. We estimate an average treatment effect (ATE) of up to −7.1% for houses within a one-kilometer radius of a wind turbine, an effect that fades to zero at a distance of 8 to 9 km. Old houses and those in rural areas are affected the most, while home prices in urban areas are hardly affected. These results highlight that substantial local externalities are associated with wind power plants.

Manuel Frondel, Gerhard Kussel, Stephan Sommer, and Colin Vance
RWI—Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (formerly Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung), Essen, Germany
Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB), Department of Economics, Bochum, Germany

Ruhr Economic Papers #791, RWI

Download original document: “Local Cost for Global Benefit: The Case of Wind Turbines

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