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Resource Documents: California (27 items)

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Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.


Date added:  September 4, 2017
California, Environment, NoisePrint storyE-mail story

Revisiting Ocotillo

Author:  Hales, Roy

Ocotillo, in Imperial County, has been inflicted by massive dust storms ever since 112 turbines were built around it. The desert surface was scraped clean of vegetation as a preparation for the project. Now there is nothing to hold the dust down.

Dust storm descending on Ocotillo – Jim Pelley photo

That’s not the only complaint. Since the project went online, less than two years ago:

  • 3 turbines have had their gear boxes replaced,
  • 9 turbines have had blade replacements
  • a 173-foot-long-blade flew off one turbine
  • Ocotillo residents have also documented oil leaks in 40% of the turbines. The Department of Toxic substance control subsequently gave the project a summary of violations.

Two Ocotillo residents, Jim Pelley and Parke Ewing, have documented this project on the web. There are hundreds of videos on Pelley’s Youtube site “Save Ocotillo” and Ewing’s Facebook page Ocotillo Wind Turbine Destruction is a visual chronicle of this project and related materials.



(October 23, 2014)

The Ocotillo wind farm went online almost five years ago. Were they not documented in such meticulous detail, some of the reports coming from the tiny desert community this project surrounds would be difficult to believe. I once received a constant stream of YouTube videos and reports from this project. It was one of the sites that shaped my perception of the energy sector. To some extent, I’ve moved on from this story since then, but I always knew I would be revisiting Ocotillo.

Revisiting Ocotillo

Parke Ewing has not been able to move on.

Last May, I asked him for an update.

Ewing replied, “It’s about 9:30 – 10:00 o’clock in the morning. Not one wind turbine is spinning. There is no wind. Their capacity factor, since they became operational, is only about 21.3%. Pattern Energy stated the wind farm would be 34% and they also said it would produce 891 gigawatts (GW) per year. So far, the most they’ve ever generated is 536 GW. So it is substantially less than what they proposed to get approval on this project …”

Ocotillo Wind Capacity by Parke Ewing

Update On Mechanical Failures

Turbine T126 after the collapse – Parke Ewing photo

This is the beginning of a four minute clip, which you can listen to on the podcast. Some of the details include:

These are just the latest in a litany of problems.

Six months after the project officially went online, a 173 foot-long-blade flew off one of the turbines.



There was a turbine fire in 2015.

Since this project went online:

Contacting The Developers

Attempts to contact the turbine manufacturer, developer and local utility have been futile.

Ewing says, “We’ve tried to talk to Pattern Energy [the developer], of course we always get a generic reply that they’re working on this or checking on that, but we never get an answer on the noise, or the lights, or anything. They really just write us off. They don’t talk to us. We get an email reply sometimes, that’s about it.”

I phoned Jeff Grappone, of Siemens USA after the turbine caught fire in 2015. He suggested I send an email. I did this, asking:

Grappone never replied.

Maybe I asked too many questions.

Dust Storms

I recently tried a different tactic, when asking Pattern Energy about the dust storms that have plagued Ocotillo since the site was built. I sent them the video you see below and asked for an explanation.



Matt Dallas emailed back, “Ocotillo Wind operates its equipment in accordance with our permits. The dust in the video was created by the wind, not by the turbines. You’ll see many of the turbines are not operating in the video because the wind speeds that day were so high they exceeded our maximum operating capacity.”

He was not aware that I had previously interviewed a site developer about dust storms on utility scale wind and solar sites.

According to Harvey Stephens, Vice President of Operations at World Wind & Solar, fugitive dust problems are caused by scraping large areas of the desert crust clean of vegetation. This leaves the underlaying soil exposed to the wind. There are remedies, such as planting grasses, windflowers and other materials as a protective blanket to stabilize areas disturbed by grading operations. When developers follow these procedures, the dust storms normally cease after a year or so.

Ocotillo has been inflicted by dust storms since construction began. In the video below, you can see one from August 2012.



I pointed this out to Matt Dallas, who did not reply.

The Noise

Ewing and his wife suspect, but can not prove, that infrasound noise from the turbines might be the reason that are “tired all the time.”

He describes the sound made by the turbines, when they are turning, as “… the most irritating sound I have ever heard.”

(There is a recording on the podcast.)

“One of Pattern’s project managers came by and listened to the sound once and said he would take it back to whoever is in charge. We never heard another word about it,” says Ewing.

“We like to be outside. That’s why we are here in the desert. We have a fairly nice place here, with a lot of trees and stuff that we need to keep watered. It is difficult to do when they are making noise. It is kind of like a noise trespassing, that really shouldn’t be happening on your property.”

What’s The Problem?

Workers washing the leaked oil off turbine 162 – courtesy Parke Ewing

Parke Ewing believes the problem is wind technology.

I agreed with him, until I saw some German sites in 2014. [NWW still agrees with Ewing.]

The problem at Ocotillo does not appear to be so much with the technology, as how it was used. This is not a good location for wind turbines. The site was politically expedient and there were massive tax credits in 2012, but should never have been built. Now the manufacturer and developer have made their money, and people like Parke Ewing are left with the mess.

September 3, 2017, Roy L Hales, theecoreport.com

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Date added:  May 3, 2017
California, EnvironmentPrint storyE-mail story

Mammalian mesocarnivore visitation at tortoise burrows in a wind farm

Author:  Agha, Mickey; et al.

ABSTRACT:
There is little information on predator–prey interactions in wind energy landscapes in North America, especially among terrestrial vertebrates. Here, we evaluated how proximity to roads and wind turbines affect mesocarnivore visitation with desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and their burrows in a wind energy landscape. In 2013, we placed motion-sensor cameras facing the entrances of 46 active desert tortoise burrows in a 5.2-km² wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California, USA. Cameras recorded images of 35 species of reptiles, mammals, and birds. Counts for 4 species of mesocarnivores at desert tortoise burrows increased closer to dirt roads, and decreased closer to wind turbines. Our results suggest that anthropogenic infrastructure associated with wind energy facilities could influence the general behavior of mammalian predators and their prey. Further investigation of proximate mechanisms that underlie road and wind turbine effects (i.e., ground vibrations, sound emission, and traffic volume) and on wind energy facility spatial designs (i.e., road and wind turbine configuration) could prove useful for better understanding wildlife responses to wind energy development.

Mickey Agha, Amanda L. Smith, Jeffrey E. Lovich, David Delaney, Joshua R. Ennen, Jessica Briggs, Leo J. Fleckenstein, Laura A. Tennant, Shellie R. Puffer, Andrew Walde, Terence R. Arundel, Steven J. Price, and Brian D. Todd

Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis;
U.S. Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Flagstaff, AZ;
U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, IL;
Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute, Chattanooga;
Colorado State University, Fort Collins;
Department of Forestry, University of Kentucky, Lexington; and
Walde Research and Environmental Consulting, Atascadero, CA

Journal of Wildlife Management
First published: 12 April 2017
DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.21262

Download original document: “Mammalian mesocarnivore visitation at tortoise burrows in a wind farm

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Date added:  September 29, 2016
California, WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

Author:  Katzner, Todd; et al.

Abstract. Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

Todd E. Katzner, U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Boise, Idaho

David M. Nelson and Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Appalachian Laboratory, Frostburg, Maryland

Melissa A. Braham, Adam E. Duerr, and Tricia A. Miller, Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

Jacqueline M. Doyle, Nadia B. Fernandez, and J. Andrew DeWoody, Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Peter H. Bloom, Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Camarillo, California

Renee C. E. Culver and Loan Braswell, NextEra Energy Resources, Juno Beach, Florida

Conservation Biology
First published: 27 September 2016
DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12836

Fatalidades del Águila Dorada y Consecuencias a Escala Continental de la Generación Local de Energía Eólica

Resumen

La producción de energía renovable se está expandiendo rápidamente a pesar de los muchos efectos desconocidos sobre la vida silvestre y sus hábitats. Utilizamos los datos genéticos y de isotopos estables recolectados de águilas doradas (Aquila chrysaetos) muertas en el Área de Recursos de Aire del Paso de Altamont (ARAPA) en California en modelos demográficos para probar las hipótesis sobre la extensión geográfica y las consecuencias demográficas de las fatalidades causadas por las instalaciones de energía renovable. Los análisis geoespaciales de los valores de δ2H obtenidos de las plumas mostraron que ≥25 % de estas águilas muertas en ARAPA eran migrantes recientes hacia la población, la mayoría desde distancias lejanas (>100 km). Los datos de los genes nucleares indicaron que este subconjunto de águilas inmigrantes era genéticamente similar a las aves identificadas como locales a partir de los datos de δ2H. Los modelos demográficos insinuaron que, de frente a esta mortalidad, la estabilidad aparente de la población local de águilas doradas fue mantenida por una inmigración a escala continental. Estos análisis demuestran que las decisiones de manejo del ecosistema con respecto a los efectos de la energía renovable a escala local pueden tener consecuencias a escala continental.

Download original document: “Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

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Date added:  February 23, 2015
California, EnvironmentPrint storyE-mail story

Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature

Author:  Walsh-Thomas, Jenell M.; Cervone, Guido; Agouris, Peggy; and Manca, Germana

[Abstract] Large wind farms are power plants that generate clean energy from a renewable source. They are increasingly being installed and operated to replace and complement fossil fuel power plants in an effort to help reduce greenhouse and other pollutant emissions. Wind energy can have a positive economic impact and numerous locations on the planet are good candidates for wind energy production. Any direct environmental impact of large-scale wind farms needs to be investigated because it could impact agriculture, economics, health, society, and technology. A recent study showed that surface temperature is observed to increase directly downwind of large wind farms. This research, performed concurrently, shows that similar and complementary results are obtained for a different location, and using remotely sensed temperature data obtained from a different satellite, at higher resolution and for a longer time span. Satellite remote sensing observations from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper are used to study temperature changes over the San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm from 1984 to 2011, with a pixel resolution of 120 m. A warming trend is consistently observed downwind of the wind farm.

Jenell M. Walsh-Thomas, Guido Cervone, Peggy Agouris, Germana Manca
Department of Geography and Geoinformation Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, Virginia

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Volume 16, Issue 8, October 2012, Pages 6432–6437
doi:10.1016/j.rser.2012.07.004

Download original document: “Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature

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