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Resource Documents: Regulations (246 items)

RSSRegulations

Unless indicated otherwise, documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are shared here to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate. • The copyrights reside with the sources indicated. As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations.


Date added:  September 19, 2019
Noise, Regulations, Sweden, TechnologyPrint storyE-mail story

In situ measured facade sound insulation of wind turbine sound

Author:  Thorsson, Pontus

ABSTRACT—
In most countries there are regulations of wind turbine sound level outdoors at dwellings. Often there are also regulations of the sound levels inside the dwelling, however not often directly aiming at wind turbine sound. The sound level indoors from wind turbines has attracted more interest in the latest years, and then especially in the low frequency region (up to 200 Hz). Studies on the in situ sound level difference between outside and inside of dwellings are however scarce. This paper presents the in situ measured sound level difference for two Swedish houses in rural locations, both using a loudspeaker and using the wind turbine sound as exciting signal. This is possible due to a 2 month long measurement series with simultaneous sound recordings outside and inside. The sound pressure level differences from the two methods are shown to differ substantially.

Pontus THORSSON, Akustikverkstan, Lidköping, Sweden

Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 3826-3830

Download original document: “In situ measured facade sound insulation of wind turbine sound

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Date added:  September 15, 2019
Denmark, Europe, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Noise, Regulations, TechnologyPrint storyE-mail story

Implementation of the issue of noise from wind turbines at low frequencies

Author:  Marini, Martino; et al.

ABSTRACT—
The enduring energy scenario leads to further promote the development of the exploitation of renewable energy sources. Recent European standards have been defining a path to reach in 2050 a level of decarbonization lower of 80% compared to 1990. Wind farms have been growing quickly for [the] last decade with individual wind turbines getting larger and larger. In addition to the benefits of containing greenhouse gas emissions and restraining the use of depletable resources, drawbacks have also appeared due to noise generation from wind turbines and adverse reaction of some nearby residents. The noise generated by wind turbines has a broad spectrum character but the low frequency noise causes special problems. It is a fact that in different European countries special laws have been adopted to impose noise limits and evaluation methods for the assessment of environmental low frequency noise from this kind of sound source. Other countries are still lacking specific rules but in the authorization procedure such analysis is required by environmental control agencies. The purpose of this study consists of comparing the assessment procedures currently used in different European countries for the prediction of low frequency noise from wind turbines and its propagation. The comparison of procedures gives a chance to put forward progressions in low frequency noise emission and reception.

Martino MARINI, DADU University of Sassari, Italy
Costantino Carlo MASTINO, Roberto BACCOLI, Andrea FRATTOLILLO, DICAAR University of Cagliari, Italy
Antonino DI BELLA5, DII University of Padova, Italy

Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 1441–1446

Download original document: “Implementation of the issue of noise from wind turbines at low frequencies

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Date added:  June 22, 2019
Australia, Noise, RegulationsPrint storyE-mail story

Wind turbine sound limits: Current status and recommendations based on mitigating noise annoyance

Author:  Davy, John; Burgemeister, Kym; and Hillman, David

Abstract:
This paper describes existing wind turbine sound limits in Australian states and several other countries with similar constraints, how these were established and a method that could facilitate their harmonisation. Most existing limits appear to have been adopted to avoid sleep disturbance using data derived from sound sources other than wind turbines. This seems to have been a reasonable approach at the time of their adoption because of the paucity of other suitable data. More recently the concept of “annoyance” has been used to encapsulate negative reactions to wind turbine sound. Many studies have now demonstrated a significant relationship between annoyance and wind turbine sound level, whether or not sound was the major source of the annoyance. Thus there is a logical basis for now deriving a wind turbine sound limit based on limiting annoyance. This paper describes such an approach. The derived limit is compared to existing Australian and international limits. Its value lies within the range of these other limits. It provides a method for harmonisation of future limits based on direct assessments of human response to wind turbine sound.

John L. Davy, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, Victoria, Australia
Kym Burgemeister, Arup Acoustics, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
David Hillman, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

Applied Acoustics
Volume 140, November 2018, Pages 288-295
doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2018.06.009

Fig. 1. The percentage of highly annoyed people as a function the outdoor wind turbine sound level exceeded for ninety percent of the time in a 10 min period. The sound pressure levels have been converted to LA90(10min) from their original values.

Fig. 2. The percentage of highly annoyed people according to the Community Tolerance Level model as a function the outdoor wind turbine sound level exceeded for ninety percent of the time in a 10 min period. The sound pressure levels have been converted to LA90(10min) from their original values.

Fig. 3. The percentage of highly annoyed people as a function the outdoor wind turbine sound level exceeded for ninety percent of the time in a 10 min period. The sound pressure levels have been converted to LA90(10min) from their original values.

Our analysis derives a maximum sound level limit for wind turbine sound based on permitting no more than 10% of the population to be highly annoyed when exposed to wind turbine sound at the maximum sound level limit. Such a 10% threshold is commonly used when setting hearing protection noise limits, and is similar to the 8% used when setting the Dutch wind turbine sound limits. Thus Fig. 3 and Eq. (2) suggest that the mean limit for wind turbine sound should be an LA90(10min) of 35 dBA.

Fig. 4. The percentage of highly annoyed people indoors and outdoors as a function the outdoor wind turbine sound level LA90(10min). The Canadian curves are based on survey data from Ontario and Prince Edward Island provinces. The European curves are based on Dutch and Swedish survey data. The original Lden and LAeq levels have been converted to LA90(10min).

Table 1. Wind Turbine Sound Limits.

Standard Quantity Area Time Background LA90(10min) Limit
ETSU-R-97
England
LA90(10min) No financial Involvement Day ≤30 to 35 dB 35 to 40 dB
ETSU-R-97
England
LA90(10min) No financial Involvement Day >30 to 35 dB BKGND + 5 dB
ETSU-R-97
England
LA90(10min) No financial Involvement Night ≤38 dB 43 dB
ETSU-R-97
England
LA90(10min) No financial Involvement Night >38 dB BKGND + 5 dB
ETSU-R-97
England
LA90(10min) Financial Involvement Any ≤40 dB 45 dB
ETSU-R-97
England
LA90(10min) Financial Involvement Any >40 dB BKGND + 5 dB
VIC NZS 6808:1998 LA95(10min) Any Any ≤35 dB(LA95) 40 dB
VIC NZS 6808:1998 LA95(10min) Any Any >35 dB(LA95) BKGND + 5 dB
SA EPA 2003 LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement Any Any ≤30 dB 35 dB
SA EPA 2003 LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement Any Any >30 dB BKGND + 5 dB
WA 2004 LAeq(10min) Any Any ≤30 dB 35 dB
WA 2004 LAeq(10min) Any Any >30 dB BKGND + 5 dB
SA EPA 2009 LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement Standard Any ≤35 dB 40 dB
SA EPA 2009 LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement Standard Any >35 dB BKGND + 5 dB
SA EPA 2009 LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement Rural Living Any ≤30 dB 35 dB
SA EPA 2009 LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement Rural Living Any >30 dB BKGND + 5 dB
VIC NZS 6808:2010 LA90(10min) Standard Any ≤35 dB 40 dB
VIC NZS 6808:2010 LA90(10min) Standard Any >35 dB BKGND + 5 dB
VIC NZS 6808:2010 LA90(10min) High Amenity Day ≤35 dB 40 dB
VIC NZS 6808:2010 LA90(10min) High Amenity Day >35 dB BKGND + 5 dB
VIC NZS 6808:2010 LA90(10min) High Amenity Evening or Night less than 6 m/s ≤30 dB 35 dB
VIC NZS 6808:2010 LA90(10min) High Amenity Evening or Night less than 6 m/s >30 dB BKGND + 5 dB
NSW Draft 2011 LAeq(10min) LA90(10min) + 1.5 dB Any Day ≤30 dB 35 dB
NSW Draft 2011 LAeq(10min) LA90(10min) + 1.5 dB Any Day >30 dB BKGND + 5 dB
NSW Draft 2011 LAeq(10min) LA90(10min) + 1.5 dB Any Night ≤30 dB 35 dB
NSW Draft 2011 LAeq(10min) LA90(10min) + 1.5 dB Any Night >30 dB BKGND + 5 dB
QLD 2016 LAeq Prediction Non-host lot Day and Evening ≤32 dB 37 dB
QLD 2016 LAeq Prediction Non-host lot Day and Evening >32 dB BKGND + 5 dB
QLD 2016 LAeq Prediction Non-host lot Night ≤30 dB 35 dB
QLD 2016 LAeq Prediction Non-host lot Night >30 dB BKGND + 5 dB
QLD 2016 LAeq Prediction Host lot Any ≤40 dB 45 dB
QLD 2016 LAeq Prediction Host lot Any >40 dB BKGND + 5 dB
Demark LAeq, 8 m/s@10 m Standard Any Any 44 dB
Demark LAeq, 6 m/s@10 m Standard Any Any 42 dB
Demark LAeq, 8 m/s@10 m Noise Sensitive Any Any 39 dB
Demark LAeq, 6 m/s@10 m Noise Sensitive Any Any 37 dB
Canada, Ontario LAeq (1hr) Urban Any ≤38 dB RefBG 45 dB
Canada, Ontario LAeq (1hr) Urban Any >38 dB RefBG RefBG + 7 dB
Canada, Ontario LAeq (1hr) Rural Any ≤33 dB RefBG 40 dB
Canada, Ontario LAeq (1hr) Rural Any >33 dB RefBG RefBG + 7 dB
Sweden LAeq, 8 m/s@10 m Standard Any Any 40 dB
Sweden LAeq, 8 m/s@10 m Quiet Any Any 35 dB
Netherlands LAden Any Any Any 47 dB
Netherlands LAeq Any Night Any 41 dB

Download original document: “Wind turbine sound limits: Current status and recommendations based on mitigating noise annoyance

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Date added:  October 10, 2018
Europe, Health, Noise, RegulationsPrint storyE-mail story

Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region

Author:  World Health Organization

Wind Turbine Noise Recommendations

For average noise exposure, the GDG [Guideline Development Group] conditionally recommends reducing noise levels produced by wind turbines to below 45[A] dB Lden* [at the most exposed façade, outdoors], as wind turbine noise above this level is associated with adverse health effects.

To reduce health effects, the GDG conditionally recommends that policy-makers implement suitable measures to reduce noise exposure from wind turbines in the population exposed to levels above the guideline values for average noise exposure. No evidence is available, however, to facilitate the recommendation of one particular type of intervention over another.

Download original document: “Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region

Download the Executive Summary

*ISO 1996-1:2016 Section 3.6: Lden is the average of all (12-15 hours of day, 4 hours of evening [if defined], 8-9 hours of night) levels, with evening and night levels weighted: +5 dB added to the evening levels and +10 dB to the night levels.

See also:
Night Noise Guidelines for Europe
Guidelines for Community Noise

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