Resource Documents: Regulations (250 items)
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Author: Thorsson, Pontus
In most countries there are regulations of wind turbine sound level outdoors at dwellings. Often there are also regulations of the sound levels inside the dwelling, however not often directly aiming at wind turbine sound. The sound level indoors from wind turbines has attracted more interest in the latest years, and then especially in the low frequency region (up to 200 Hz). Studies on the in situ sound level difference between outside and inside of dwellings are however scarce. This paper presents the in situ measured sound level difference for two Swedish houses in rural locations, both using a loudspeaker and using the wind turbine sound as exciting signal. This is possible due to a 2 month long measurement series with simultaneous sound recordings outside and inside. The sound pressure level differences from the two methods are shown to differ substantially.
Pontus THORSSON, Akustikverkstan, Lidköping, Sweden
Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 3826-3830
Download original document: “In situ measured facade sound insulation of wind turbine sound”
Author: Marini, Martino; et al.
The enduring energy scenario leads to further promote the development of the exploitation of renewable energy sources. Recent European standards have been defining a path to reach in 2050 a level of decarbonization lower of 80% compared to 1990. Wind farms have been growing quickly for [the] last decade with individual wind turbines getting larger and larger. In addition to the benefits of containing greenhouse gas emissions and restraining the use of depletable resources, drawbacks have also appeared due to noise generation from wind turbines and adverse reaction of some nearby residents. The noise generated by wind turbines has a broad spectrum character but the low frequency noise causes special problems. It is a fact that in different European countries special laws have been adopted to impose noise limits and evaluation methods for the assessment of environmental low frequency noise from this kind of sound source. Other countries are still lacking specific rules but in the authorization procedure such analysis is required by environmental control agencies. The purpose of this study consists of comparing the assessment procedures currently used in different European countries for the prediction of low frequency noise from wind turbines and its propagation. The comparison of procedures gives a chance to put forward progressions in low frequency noise emission and reception.
Martino MARINI, DADU University of Sassari, Italy
Costantino Carlo MASTINO, Roberto BACCOLI, Andrea FRATTOLILLO, DICAAR University of Cagliari, Italy
Antonino DI BELLA5, DII University of Padova, Italy
Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 1441–1446
Download original document: “Implementation of the issue of noise from wind turbines at low frequencies”
Author: Davy, John; Burgemeister, Kym; and Hillman, David
This paper describes existing wind turbine sound limits in Australian states and several other countries with similar constraints, how these were established and a method that could facilitate their harmonisation. Most existing limits appear to have been adopted to avoid sleep disturbance using data derived from sound sources other than wind turbines. This seems to have been a reasonable approach at the time of their adoption because of the paucity of other suitable data. More recently the concept of “annoyance” has been used to encapsulate negative reactions to wind turbine sound. Many studies have now demonstrated a significant relationship between annoyance and wind turbine sound level, whether or not sound was the major source of the annoyance. Thus there is a logical basis for now deriving a wind turbine sound limit based on limiting annoyance. This paper describes such an approach. The derived limit is compared to existing Australian and international limits. Its value lies within the range of these other limits. It provides a method for harmonisation of future limits based on direct assessments of human response to wind turbine sound.
John L. Davy, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, Victoria, Australia
Kym Burgemeister, Arup Acoustics, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
David Hillman, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
Volume 140, November 2018, Pages 288-295
Our analysis derives a maximum sound level limit for wind turbine sound based on permitting no more than 10% of the population to be highly annoyed when exposed to wind turbine sound at the maximum sound level limit. Such a 10% threshold is commonly used when setting hearing protection noise limits, and is similar to the 8% used when setting the Dutch wind turbine sound limits. Thus Fig. 3 and Eq. (2) suggest that the mean limit for wind turbine sound should be an LA90(10min) of 35 dBA.
|LA90(10min)||No financial Involvement||Day||≤30 to 35 dB||35 to 40 dB|
|LA90(10min)||No financial Involvement||Day||>30 to 35 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|LA90(10min)||No financial Involvement||Night||≤38 dB||43 dB|
|LA90(10min)||No financial Involvement||Night||>38 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|LA90(10min)||Financial Involvement||Any||≤40 dB||45 dB|
|LA90(10min)||Financial Involvement||Any||>40 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|VIC NZS 6808:1998||LA95(10min)||Any||Any||≤35 dB(LA95)||40 dB|
|VIC NZS 6808:1998||LA95(10min)||Any||Any||>35 dB(LA95)||BKGND + 5 dB|
|SA EPA 2003||LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement||Any||Any||≤30 dB||35 dB|
|SA EPA 2003||LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement||Any||Any||>30 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|WA 2004||LAeq(10min)||Any||Any||≤30 dB||35 dB|
|WA 2004||LAeq(10min)||Any||Any||>30 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|SA EPA 2009||LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement||Standard||Any||≤35 dB||40 dB|
|SA EPA 2009||LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement||Standard||Any||>35 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|SA EPA 2009||LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement||Rural Living||Any||≤30 dB||35 dB|
|SA EPA 2009||LAeq(10min) Prediction LA90(10min) Measurement||Rural Living||Any||>30 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|VIC NZS 6808:2010||LA90(10min)||Standard||Any||≤35 dB||40 dB|
|VIC NZS 6808:2010||LA90(10min)||Standard||Any||>35 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|VIC NZS 6808:2010||LA90(10min)||High Amenity||Day||≤35 dB||40 dB|
|VIC NZS 6808:2010||LA90(10min)||High Amenity||Day||>35 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|VIC NZS 6808:2010||LA90(10min)||High Amenity||Evening or Night less than 6 m/s||≤30 dB||35 dB|
|VIC NZS 6808:2010||LA90(10min)||High Amenity||Evening or Night less than 6 m/s||>30 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|NSW Draft 2011||LAeq(10min) LA90(10min) + 1.5 dB||Any||Day||≤30 dB||35 dB|
|NSW Draft 2011||LAeq(10min) LA90(10min) + 1.5 dB||Any||Day||>30 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|NSW Draft 2011||LAeq(10min) LA90(10min) + 1.5 dB||Any||Night||≤30 dB||35 dB|
|NSW Draft 2011||LAeq(10min) LA90(10min) + 1.5 dB||Any||Night||>30 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|QLD 2016||LAeq Prediction||Non-host lot||Day and Evening||≤32 dB||37 dB|
|QLD 2016||LAeq Prediction||Non-host lot||Day and Evening||>32 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|QLD 2016||LAeq Prediction||Non-host lot||Night||≤30 dB||35 dB|
|QLD 2016||LAeq Prediction||Non-host lot||Night||>30 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|QLD 2016||LAeq Prediction||Host lot||Any||≤40 dB||45 dB|
|QLD 2016||LAeq Prediction||Host lot||Any||>40 dB||BKGND + 5 dB|
|Demark||LAeq, 8 m/s@10 m||Standard||Any||Any||44 dB|
|Demark||LAeq, 6 m/s@10 m||Standard||Any||Any||42 dB|
|Demark||LAeq, 8 m/s@10 m||Noise Sensitive||Any||Any||39 dB|
|Demark||LAeq, 6 m/s@10 m||Noise Sensitive||Any||Any||37 dB|
|Canada, Ontario||LAeq (1hr)||Urban||Any||≤38 dB RefBG||45 dB|
|Canada, Ontario||LAeq (1hr)||Urban||Any||>38 dB RefBG||RefBG + 7 dB|
|Canada, Ontario||LAeq (1hr)||Rural||Any||≤33 dB RefBG||40 dB|
|Canada, Ontario||LAeq (1hr)||Rural||Any||>33 dB RefBG||RefBG + 7 dB|
|Sweden||LAeq, 8 m/s@10 m||Standard||Any||Any||40 dB|
|Sweden||LAeq, 8 m/s@10 m||Quiet||Any||Any||35 dB|
Download original document: “Wind turbine sound limits: Current status and recommendations based on mitigating noise annoyance”
Author: World Health Organization
Wind Turbine Noise Recommendations
For average noise exposure, the GDG [Guideline Development Group] conditionally recommends reducing noise levels produced by wind turbines to below 45 dB[A] Lden* [at the most exposed façade, outdoors], as wind turbine noise above this level is associated with adverse health effects.
To reduce health effects, the GDG conditionally recommends that policy-makers implement suitable measures to reduce noise exposure from wind turbines in the population exposed to levels above the guideline values for average noise exposure. No evidence is available, however, to facilitate the recommendation of one particular type of intervention over another.
Download original document: “Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region”
Download the Executive Summary
*ISO 1996-1:2016 Section 3.6: Lden is the average of all (12-15 hours of day, 4 hours of evening [if defined], 8-9 hours of night) levels, with evening and night levels weighted: +5 dB added to the evening levels and +10 dB to the night levels.