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Resource Documents: Massachusetts (48 items)


Unless indicated otherwise, documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are shared here to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate. • The copyrights reside with the sources indicated. As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations.

Date added:  March 3, 2023
Environment, MassachusettsPrint storyE-mail story

Oils, Fuels, Gases and Lubricants

Author:  Sunrise Wind

Table 3.3.1-2. Summary of Maximum Potential Volumes, Oils, Fuels, Gas and Lubricants for the Onshore Converter Station

Onshore Converter Station Equipment/System Oil/Fuel/Gas Type Total Oil/Fuel/Gas Volume
(2) High-Voltage Shunt Reactor (fixed) Mineral Oil Dielectric Fluid 26,640 gallons (gal) (100,844 liters [L])
(2) High-Voltage Shunt Reactor (variable) Mineral Oil Dielectric Fluid 37,000 gal (140,060 L)
(4) 345/275-kV Grid Transformers Mineral Oil Dielectric Fluid 37,693 gal (107,014 L)
Gas-Insulated Switchgear Bay Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF₆) 3,500 lbs

Table 3.3.6-2. Summary of Maximum Potential Volumes Oils, Fuels, Gases and Lubricants for Offshore Converter Station

Equipment Oil/Fuel/Gas Type Oil/Fuel/Gas Volume
Transformers and Reactors Transformer Oil 105,700 gal (400,000 L)
Generator fuel tank Diesel Fuel 24,304 gal (92,000 L)
Medium and High-Voltage Gas-Insulated Switchgears Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF₆) 3,960 lbs (1,796 kg)
Crane Hydraulic Oil 528 gal (2,000 L)

Crane* Grease TBD
Rotating Equipment* Lube Oil TBD
Auxiliary Diesel Generator Lube Oil 53 gal (200 L)
Seawater Lift Pumps Lube Oil 119 gal (450 L)
Auxiliary Inert Gas System High-Pressure Nitrogen 52,834 gal (200,000 L), at 300 bar
Auxiliary Diesel Generator Fire Suppression System* Inert Gas TBD
Auxiliary Transformers Synthetic Ester Oil 3,170 gal (12,000 L)
Chiller units Refrigerant HFO1234ze(E) 40 gal (150 L)
Compressed Air Foam System* Foam Concentrate TBD
Uninterruptible Power Supply Battery* Battery Acid TBD
Cooling Medium System Glycol/Water Mix 7,925 gal (30,000 L)
Chilled Water Medium System Glycol/Water Mix 5,283 gal (20,000 L)
*The volumes listed as “TBD” are pending further engineering and will be provided when the design is further progressed.

Table 3.3.8-2. Summary of Maximum Potential Volumes Oils, Fuels, Gases and Lubricants per wind turbine generator

System/Component Oil/Fuel/Gas Type Oil/Fuel/Gas Volume
WTG Bearings and Yaw Pinions Grease* 132 gal (500 L)
Hydraulic Pumping Unit, Hydraulic Pitch Actuators, Hydraulic Pitch Accumulators Hydraulic Oil 159 gal (600 L)
Yaw Drives Gearbox Gear Oil 79 gal (300 L)
Blades and Generator Accumulators Nitrogen 104 cubic yd (80 m³)
High-Voltage Transformer Transformer Silicon/Ester Oil 1,850 gal (7,000 L)
Emergency Generator† Diesel Fuel 793 gal (3,000 L)
Tower Damper and Cooling System Glycol/Coolants 3,434 gal (13,000 L)

*Approximately 26 gal to 40 gal (100 L to 150 L) per large bearing.
†Emergency generator is not housed on the WTG but would be brought to the WTG during commissioning or in an emergency power outage.

Submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
August 19, 2022

Download original document: “Sunrise Wind Farm Project: Construction and Operations Plan

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Date added:  November 5, 2018
Massachusetts, Noise, SitingPrint storyE-mail story

Re: Falmouth Wind II Turbine Relocation Study

Author:  Rand, Robert

This letter (PDF attached) is respectfully submitted to the Town of Falmouth to provide a qualified professional opinion about the proposed relocation of Wind II. This is submitted independently as a courtesy to the Town free of compensation from any party.

The original permittings for Wind I and Wind II (and NOTUS) resulted in neighbor complaints soon after start-up and were confirmed to exceed Falmouth’s 40-dBA noise limit (turbines sited too close). Weston & Sampson’s relocation recommendation for Wind II appears to be inconsistent with the Town 40 dBA noise limit and the 2017 Barnstable Superior Court Decision.

1. The distance to meet 40 dBA for Wind II, a Vestas V82 with sound power level of 110 dBA, is approximately 891 meters or 2923 feet. This is greater than the setback distances provided by the proposed new location. The proposed new location is still too close.

2. At 2147 and 2244 feet listed in the subject report, the expected sound level is 43 dBA.

3. Use of the proposed new location appears certain to result in the relocated wind turbine’s maximum noise levels exceeding the Falmouth noise limit of 40 dBA.

4. Use of the proposed new location appears certain to result in the relocated wind turbine’s maximum noise levels exceeding established background sound levels of 27-28 dBA by over 10 dB, breaching State 10-dB noise limits.

Supporting detail is provided in the attached PDF. Please contact me if you have any questions.

Respectfully Submitted,
Robert W. Rand, ASA, INCE

October 26, 2018

Robert W. Rand, Member ASA, INCE
Rand Acoustics
Tel: 207-632-1215
Fax: 206-339-3441
Web: http://randacoustics.com

Mr. Julian M. Suso, Town Manager
Mr. Rod Palmer, Building Commissioner
Town of Falmouth
59 Town Hall Square
Falmouth, MA 02540

Re: Wind Turbine Relocation Study, Weston & Sampson Report, October 12, 2018

Download original document: “Re: Wind Turbine Relocation Study

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Review of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

Author:  Stevenson, David

The nearly decade-old Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) was always meant to be a model for a national program to reduce power plant carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) explicitly cited it in this fashion in its now-stayed Clean Power Plan. Although the RGGI is often called a “cap and trade” program, its effect is the same as a direct tax or fee on emissions because RGGI allowance costs are passed on from electric generators to distribution companies to consumers. More recently, an influential group of former cabinet officials, known as the “Climate Leadership Council,” has recommended a direct tax on CO₂; emissions (Shultz and Summers 2017).

Positive RGGI program reviews have been from RGGI, Inc. (the program administrator) and the Acadia Center, which advocates for reduced emissions (see Stutt, Shattuck, and Kumar 2015). In this article, I investigate whether reported reductions in CO₂ emissions from electric power plants, along with associated gains in health benefits and other claims, were actually achieved by the RGGI program. Based on my findings, any form of carbon tax is not the policy to accomplish emission reductions. The key results are:

David Stevenson is Director of the Center for Energy Competitiveness at the Caesar Rodney Institute. He prepared this working paper for Cato’s Center for the Study of Science.

Download original document: “A Review of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

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Date added:  July 15, 2017
Massachusetts, NoisePrint storyE-mail story

Falmouth wind turbines: Decision for larger, overlooked louder

Author:  Ambrose, Stephen

Separation distance is the solitary wind turbine noise control method to assure protections for public health and compatibility with the area. (Two international consensus guidelines may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a regulatory statute: WHO 2009 Table 1 noise effects on health, and ANSI S12.9, Parts 4 & 5 assessment of compatibility.) A direct relationship connects sound power level (Lw) to noise source distance: ISO 9613-2, section 7.1: Adiv = 20Log(m) + 11 dB. The MassDEP regulates the maximum noise level increase (LI) to more than 10 dB (Lmax) above the baseline ambient (BA) L90, without the noise source when measured (or predicted) at the neighbor’s property line (PL). A simple equation predicts the highest allowed sound power level by distance: Lw = Adiv + LI + BA.

1. Locate Wind-1, Wind-2 and Notus on Google Earth (GE),

2. Using GE’s ruler circle draw, measure each wind turbine distance to the nearest residential property lines.

3. The highest allowed wind turbine sound power levels are shown in the table below comparing manufacturers published noise data.

Falmouth Wind Turbines: Cape Cod Commission vs acoustic experts

The Cape Cod Commission recognizes that wind turbines harm public health when installed near residential communities. Unfortunately, wind turbine acoustic experts emphasize sound measurements and noise predictions, omitting assessing for activity disturbance and nuisance. The Commission has chosen an alternative and potentially a more reliable screening tool than blind and deaf noise level predictions, by imposing a mandatory setback distance based on 10 times the rotor diameter. How effective is their approach?

1. Locate Wind-1, Wind-2 and Notus on Google Earth (GE),

2. Using GE’s ruler circle draw, measure each wind turbine distance to the nearest residential property lines.

3. Divide the property line distance by 10.

4. Use Siemens sound power chart (Low-noise wind turbine design, Stefan Oerlemans, Peter Fuglsang, Siemens Wind Power A/S, 2012 EWEA-Noise-Workshop-Oxford-2012-1-1-Stefan-Oerlemans.pdf (page 11)) to estimate maximum allowable wind turbine sound power level (Lw) from rotor diameter. Compare to wind turbine sound power levels.

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