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Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.


Date added:  July 8, 2016
NoisePrint storyE-mail story

Characterisation of wind farm infrasound and low-frequency noise

Author:  Zajamšek, Branko; Hansen, Kristy; Doolan, Con; and Hansen, Colin

This paper seeks to characterise infrasound and low-frequency noise (ILFN) from a wind farm, which contains distinct tonal components with distinguishable blade-pass frequency and higher harmonics. Acoustic measurements were conducted at dwellings in the vicinity of the wind farm and meteorological measurements were taken at the wind farm location and dwellings. Wind farm ILFN was measured frequently under stable and very stable atmospheric conditions and was also found to be dependent on the time of year. For noise character assessment, wind farm ILFN was compared with several hearing thresholds and also with the spectra obtained when the wind farm was not operating. Wind farm ILFN was found to exceed the audibility threshold at distances up to 4 km from the wind farm and to undergo large variations in magnitude with time.

Branko Zajamšek, Con J. Doolan
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Kristy L. Hansen

Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

Colin H. Hansen
University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

Journal of Sound and Vibration 370 (2016) 176–190
doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2016.02.001

Download original document: “Characterisation of wind farm infrasound and low-frequency noise”

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Date added:  July 5, 2016
WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking

Author:  Roeleke, Manuel; et al.

Abstract:
Worldwide, many countries aim at countering global climate change by promoting renewable energy. Yet, recent studies highlight that so-called green energy, such as wind energy, may come at environmental costs, for example when wind turbines kill birds and bats. Using miniaturized GPS loggers, we studied how an open-space foraging bat with high collision risk with wind turbines, the common noctule Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774), interacts with wind turbines. We compared actual flight trajectories to correlated random walks to identify habitat variables explaining the movements of bats. Both sexes preferred wetlands but used conventionally managed cropland less than expected based on availability. During midsummer, females traversed the land on relatively long flight paths and repeatedly came close to wind turbines. Their flight heights above ground suggested a high risk of colliding with wind turbines. In contrast, males recorded in early summer commuted straight between roosts and foraging areas and overall flew lower than the operating range of most turbine blades, suggesting a lower collision risk. Flight heights of bats suggest that during summer the risk of collision with wind turbines was high for most studied bats at the majority of currently installed wind turbines. For siting of wind parks, preferred bat habitats and commuting routes should be identified and avoided.

Manuel Roeleke, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, and Christian C. Voigt
Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany

Torsten Blohm
Prenzlau, Germany

Yossi Yovel
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 28961 (2016)
doi:10.1038/srep28961

Download original document: “Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking”

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Date added:  June 15, 2016
OhioPrint storyE-mail story

Re: Hardin Wind Application, Logan Co., Ohio

Author:  Logan Co., Ohio, County Commissioners

WHEREAS, … the Logan County Commissioners have reviewed the application, and different
portions of the application are incomplete or inadequate; and, …

WHEREAS, the wind developer has created confusion and given misinformation to the press
through statements and advertisements causing misunderstanding with the public; and, …

WHEREAS, if the only feasible way this project can go forward is through a tax exemption and
payment in lieu of taxes, as the wind developer claims, then something is wrong with the State tax law.
Tax abatements are to incentivize development in a specific location, not to create the business model
for the project to be developed. It is curious that under the energy project law, the local governments
are expected to take a loss of revenue while the State of Ohio’s tax revenue (commercial activity tax,
kilowatt hour tax, etc.) is to remain entirely whole; and,

WHEREAS, the Logan County Board of County Commissioners is not convinced that over the life
of the project that granting the PILOT would benefit the community. Likewise with respect to job
creation, the Logan County Board of County Commissioners is not convinced that the amount of taxes
abated would be exceeded by the benefit of gaining relatively few permanent employees; and,

NOW THEREFORE, BE IT HEREBY RESOLVED by the Logan County Board of Commissioners that:

… The application submitted by Hardin Wind, LLC, is hereby rejected, in so far as it request any
tax exemption in Logan County.

((((( o )))))

Resolution by Trustees of Richland Township: … Road damage & drainage … Population density … Health & Safety … Environment … Housing … Taxation … The Richland Township Trustees are opposed to the construction of the Scioto Farm Wind Turbines.

Resolution by Rushcreek Township Trustees: … hereby again earnestly recommend to the Logan County Commissioners to deny a Payment in Lieu of Taxation (PILOT), and any other tax abatement for the Scioto Ridge Wind Installation, and all other industrial wind installations within this township and county.

Download original document: “Re: Hardin Wind Application, Logan Co., OH”

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Date added:  June 15, 2016
Economics, Environment, SwedenPrint storyE-mail story

Study on a hypothetical replacement of nuclear electricity by wind power in Sweden

Author:  Wagner, Fritz; and Rachlew, Elisabeth

Abstract. The Swedish electricity supply system benefits strongly from the natural conditions which allow a high share of hydroelectricity. A complete supply is, however, not possible. Up to now, nuclear power is the other workhorse to serve the country with electricity. Thus, electricity production of Sweden is basically CO₂-free and Sweden has reached an environmental status which others in Europe plan to reach in 2050. Furthermore, there is an efficient exchange within the Nordic countries, Nordpol, which can ease possible capacity problems during dry cold years. In this study we investigate to what extent and with what consequences the base load supply of nuclear power can be replaced by intermittent wind power. Such a scenario leads unavoidably to high wind power installations. It is shown that hydroelectricity cannot completely smooth out the fluctuations of wind power and an additional back-up system using fossil fuel is necessary. From the operational dynamics, this system has to be based on gas. The back-up system cannot be replaced by a storage using surplus electricity from wind power. The surplus is too little. To overcome this, further strong extension of wind power is necessary which leads, however, to a reduction of the use of hydroelectricity if the annual consumption is kept constant. In this case one fossil-free energy form is replaced by another, however, more complex one. A mix of wind power at 22.3GW plus a gas based back-up system with 8.6GW producing together 64.8TWh would replace the present infrastructure with 9GW nuclear power producing 63.8TWh electricity. The specific CO₂-emission increases to the double in this case. Pumped storage for the exclusive supply of Sweden does not seem to be a meaningful investment.

Fritz Wagner, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald, Germany
Elisabeth Rachlew, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

European Physical Journal Plus (2016) 131: 173
DOI 10.1140/epjp/i2016-16173-8

Download original document: “Study on a hypothetical replacement of nuclear electricity by wind power in Sweden”

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