Resource Documents — latest additions
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Author: American Bird Conservancy
American Bird Conservancy (ABC) has identified 10 of the worst-sited wind energy projects for birds in the
United States, both existing and proposed, with the intention of educating the public and key decision makers about bird impacts from wind development. Many individuals and organizations have embraced wind energy without addressing the difficult questions about its potential impact on our nation’s wildlife. As a result, many wind development projects are causing significant bird mortality – at a scale that is now becoming a major source of concern for bird conservationists.
EXISTING and APPROVED PROJECTS
1. CHOKECHERRY AND SIERRA-MADRE
Location: Carbon County, Wyoming (Power Company of Wyoming LLC)
Why listed: Located in key breeding and foraging habitat for Greater Sage-Grouse and Golden Eagle
2. GULF WIND
Location: Kenedy County, Texas (Babcock & Brown, now owned by Pattern Energy)
Why listed: Located in a critical migratory pathway for songbirds; many raptor species are present; impacts habitat for declining grassland birds
Location: Lahaina District, Maui, Hawaii (First Wind, now part of SunEdison)
Why listed: One of the top known killers of Endangered birds
4. LAUREL MOUNTAIN
Location: Laurel Mountain, West Virginia (AES Energy Storage)
Why listed: Site of one of the largest single songbird mortality events ever recorded in North America
5. SUMMIT REPOWERING (AT ALTAMONT PASS)
Location: Alameda County, California (Altamont Winds, Inc.)
Why listed: Poses an ongoing threat to Golden Eagles and other birds as a result of poor siting
6. CAPE WIND
Location: Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts (Cape Wind Associates)
Why listed: Proposed location in area with one of the largest concentrations of migratory birds in the world; high risk of catastrophic mortality events
Location: Niagara County, New York near the town of Somerset (Apex Clean Energy)
Why listed: Vast numbers of migratory songbirds and numbers of raptors rely on this area; close to breeding habitat for declining grassland birds
Location: McIntosh and Dickey Counties, North Dakota (EDF Renewable Energy)
Why listed: Threat to the Endangered Whooping Crane and other federally protected birds
Location: Pratt County, Kansas (NextEra Energy Resources, LLC)
Why listed: Poses a high risk to Endangered Whooping Cranes through infrastructure development
10. ROCK CREEK
Location: Atchison County, Missouri (TradeWind Energy)
Why listed: Poses a high risk to migratory birds and Bald Eagles moving in and out of the Squaw Creek Wildlife Refuge
Author: Cooper, Steven
Abstract: In the olden days of acoustics (predigital), low frequency analysis used analogue narrow band filters and cathode ray oscilloscopes for special problems leading to the general use of peak values. Analogue filters have time constants that can affect the derived rms values requiring caution where high crest factors are involved. Modern narrowband digital analysis is based on an FFT [fast Fourier transform] of the time signal to extract the periodic function that occurs in the time domain that are then displayed as discrete peaks in the frequency domain. FFT analysis of turbines show discrete infrasound peaks at peaks at multiples of the blade pass frequency in addition to sidebands in the low frequency range spaced at multiples of the blade pass frequency. Are these signals actually there or are they a product of modern day analysis. Is the infrasound signature a clue to a different area of investigation? The paper will show the results of testing to compare old fashioned and modern day analysis.
170th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America
Jacksonville, Florida, 02-06 November 2015
Author: Sugimoto, Takanao; Koyama, Kenji; Kurihara, Yosuke; and Watanabe, Kajiro
Abstract: This paper describes the development of a new sensor which uses a condenser microphone and a new system containing it as an element. The back of the microphone is covered with a seal chamber, which expands the frequency characteristic of the microphone to the infrasonic region. In addition, a windscreen is fitted to the sensor to reduce or eliminate wind noise. We developed a measurement system with this new sensor, installed it at a wind farm, and measured infrasound. The measurement results confirmed that the measurement system worked normally and could measure infrasound generated by wind turbines. Moreover, it was confirmed that the equivalent continuous sound level is highly correlated with the average rotor speed of a wind turbine.
Figure 7 shows the measurement result of October 25, 2007 19:16 as a sample, and Fig. 8 shows the result calculated by Eq. (2) and the calibration result of a G frequency weighting sound pressure level.
Figure 10 shows the relationship of the equivalent continuous sound level for 80 seconds (calculated from 240 measurement results by using Eq. (3)) and the average rotor speed.
Society of Instrument and Control Engineers Annual Conference 2008
August 20-22, 2008, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan
Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan
Author: Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; and Tachibana, Hideki
Abstract: The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.
Noise Health. 2016 Mar-Apr;18(81):53-61.