Resource Documents — latest additions
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Impact of wind turbine sound on general health, sleep disturbance and annoyance of workers: a pilot-study in Manjil wind farm, Iran
Author: Abbasi, Milad; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Zakerian, Seyyed Abbolfazl; and Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein
Background: The wind turbine’s sound seems to have a proportional effect on health of people living near to wind farms. This study aimed to investigate the effect of noise emitted from wind turbines on general health, sleep and annoyance among workers of manjil wind farm, Iran.
Materials and methods: A total number of 53 workers took part in this study. Based on the type of job, they were categorized into three groups of maintenance, security and office staff. The persons’ exposure at each job-related group was measured by eight-hour equivalent sound level (LAeq, 8 h). A Noise annoyance scale, Epworth sleepiness scale and 28-item general health questionnaire was used for gathering data from workers. The data were analyzed through Multivariate Analysis of variance (MANOVA) test, Pillai’s Trace test, Paired comparisons analysis and Multivariate regression test were used in the R software.
Results and discussion: The results showed that, response variables (annoyance, sleep disturbance and health) were significantly different between job groups. The results also indicated that sleep disturbance as well as noise exposure had a significant effect on general health. Noise annoyance and distance from wind turbines could significantly explain about 44.5 and 34.2 % of the variance in sleep disturbance and worker’s general health, respectively. General health was significantly different in different age groups while age had no significant impact on sleep disturbance. The results were reverse for distance because it had no significant impact on health, but sleep disturbance was significantly affected.
Conclusions: We came to this conclusion that wind turbines noise can directly impact on annoyance, sleep and health. This type of energy generation can have potential health risks for wind farm workers. However, further research is needed to confirm the results of this study.
Mohammad Reza Monnazzam
Seyyed Abolfazl Zakerian
Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi
Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical
Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering (2015) 13:71
Author: Ontario Society of Professional Engineers
Original Goals for Electricity System Transformation
- Reduce CO₂ emissions from power plants:
- Phase out coal plants and build new efficient CCGT gas plants.
- Restart 4 nuclear units at Bruce A and 2 units at Pickering A.
- Add wind, solar, bio-energy and small hydro generation.
- Refurbish nuclear units as they reach end of design life.
- Create new green energy sector jobs:
- FIT program to accelerate deployment of renewables.
- Create 50,000 jobs in new green sector.
- Keep transformation costs within 1% per year in additional costs:
- Install smart meters with Time-of‐Use (TOU) rates.
- Encourage peak reduction and load flattening.
- A careful engineering analysis and grid simulation would have shown that the policy goals could not have been economically accomplished because:
- Backup generation is required for wind and solar. Consequently wind and solar are displacement energy sources.
- The total value of displacement sources to the consumer is only the economic value of the displaced fuel. For hydroelectric and nuclear it’s 0.5 cents/kWh. For natural gas it’s 4 cents/kWh plus a carbon reduction benefit of 1 cent/kWh for each $30 per ton CO₂ of environmental costs.
- The policy to eliminate coal in Ontario reduced the carbon reduction benefit of wind and solar by 2.5× because gas is cleaner than coal. …
Why Will Emissions Double as We Add Wind and Solar Plants?
- Wind and Solar require flexible backup generation.
- Nuclear is too inflexible to backup renewables without expensive engineering changes to the reactors.
- Flexible electric storage is too expensive at the moment.
- Consequently natural gas provides the backup for wind and solar in North America.
- When you add wind and solar you are actually forced to reduce nuclear genera,on to make room for more natural gas genera,on to provide flexible backup.
- Ontario currently produces electricity at less than 40 grams of CO₂ emissions/kWh.
- Wind and solar with natural gas backup produces electricity at about 200 grams of CO₂ emissions/kWh. Therefore adding wind and solar to Ontario’s grid drives CO₂ emissions higher. From 2016 to 2032 as Ontario phases out nuclear capacity to make room for wind and solar, CO₂ emissions will double (2013 LTEP data).
- In Ontario, with limited economic hydro and expensive storage, it is mathematically impossible to achieve low CO₂ emissions at reasonable electricity prices without nuclear generation.
Author: Krisselbrink, Barry
I am writing asking for your support in requesting the CAW [Canadian Auto Workers] to remove the wind turbine which is currently on their property.
As a Developer in the area, I have had sales in the southwest end of Port Elgin fall through because of the noise and health concerns created as a result of the wind turbine running. I have been advised by real estate agents that people won’t even look at properties at that end of town. The value of the land and homes in this area has greatly depreciated due to the wind turbine and is making it challenging to recoup the costs of developing land in this area. This will also impact the Town in the amount of taxes and development fees it will be able to collect.
Homeowners who purchased homes from me in this area and prior to the wind turbine are advising me that they are now suffering from dizziness, vertigo, extreme headaches and vision problems. People are also suffering from high blood pressure, black spots in their vision, nosebleeds and loss of concentration, among other issues. Their health had been fine prior to the wind turbine starting up and this is not what they signed up for when they bought their homes.
We have been constructing homes in Port Elgin for many years and this has been the first time our company is opposing something such as this wind turbine. However, this turbine has been constructed in a very poor location as the revised regulations show. And we are prepared to support all those affected by this wind turbine in having it removed and located to a more appropriate location conforming to the new regulations.
Thank you for your support on this request. Please contact me if I can be of any further assistance in the above-noted matter.
Barry’s Construction and Insulation Ltd.
TO: Council, Town of Saugeen Shores, Port Elgin, Ontario
August 8, 2013
Author: Vestas Wind Systems
The Vestas V117-3.3 MW turbine has a rotor diameter of 117 m (384 ft) and a rated output power of 3.3 MW. Swept area 10,751 m² (2.66 acres). Speed, dynamic operation range 6.2-17.7 rpm (maximum tip speed of 390 kph/243 mph). Total gearbox oil volume 1000-1200 L (264-317 gal). Main contributors to own consumption: hydraulic motors, yaw motors, water heating, water pumps, oil heating, oil pump for gearbox lubrication, controllers, transformer no-load loss; total ~128 kW. [Other contributors to consumption include turning the blades to avoid bending, turning the blades as wind rises, maintaining charge of 192-V uninterruptible power supply, lighting.] Maximum noise level at optimised power: 107.0 dBA 10 m above ground.