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Resource Documents: U.S. (156 items)


Unless indicated otherwise, documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are shared here to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate. • The copyrights reside with the sources indicated. As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations.

Date added:  November 5, 2022
Colorado, Property valuesPrint storyE-mail story

Impact Analysis of the Niyol Wind Farm on Surrounding Rural Residential and Agricultural Land Values in Logan County, Colorado

Author:  Forensic Appraisal GroupForensic Appraisal Group

Prepared for Concerned Citizens for a Safe Logan County, Sterling, Colorado, by Forensic Appraisal Group, Neenah, Wisconsin – June 11, 2020

This report was contracted by Concerned Citizens for a Safe Logan County for our opinion on how the 200.8MW Niyol Wind LLC will impact rural residential and agricultural farm values within the wind farm footprint and 1-mile outside of this zone of this proposed wind farm.

Niyol Wind is a wholly owned subsidiary of NextEra Energy. The wind farm is located in the Fleming area, Logan County, Colorado. The conditional use permit submitted by Niyol states that the wind farm will occupy 39,314 acres of area. The development will have 89 wind turbines, having a height (including the tower and blades at 12 o’clock position) of 495ft-505ft. The project will include graveled access roads over private land to the wind turbines, a maintenance area of approximately 4-acres, a substation of 10-acres graveled with a chain-link security fence and outside yard lighting, two meteorological towers being 275ft in height, underground and above ground electrical supply lines and a thirty-one mile 230kV high voltage transmission line that is to link up with an existing high voltage transmission line for transmission of the produced energy. The three-blade wind turbines will be one of two models: the GE 2.5MW turbine or the GE 2.8MW. The electrical collector lines are to be buried, the collector substation is above ground and connected to an overhead 230kV high voltage transmission line.

The study results are summarized as follows.

Literature Study

The media generally portrays the impact of wind turbines on residential properties as negative, bringing up fear factors and conflicting benefit, or no benefit issues. Overall, the qualitative factor is centered along the lines of health, noise, flicker, and viewshed. With regard to the question, “Do wind turbines affect property value?” the two Centerville Township (Michigan) officials summed it up with this statement: “It is totally counterintuitive to suggest anything else.”

Impact Studies

Wind industry and government supported studies found little to no evidence of an impact. However, independent studies found a significant impact using a variety of valuation methods from paired sales analysis to multi-regression analysis.

The Landsink (Ontario, CA) study found a loss range of −8.85% to −50%, with a loss average of −39% for residential homes within 664ft to 2,531ft of a wind farm.

The Appraisal Group One Wisconsin Study found a typical loss of 1-10 acre residential lots within 1⁄2-mile of wind turbines to be −19% to −40%.

The Clarkson University upstate New York study of both residential and agricultural properties found a loss ranging from −15.6% to −31% within 1-3 miles of a wind farm.

The Forensic Appraisal Coral Springs (WY) study of large residential lots (35 acres) which would be abutting a proposed wind farm suffered a value impact of −25% to −44%.

The McCann study (IL) of residential properties found an average impact of −25% within 2-miles of a wind farm.

The Forensic Appraisal Big Sky (IL) study found a loss range of −12% to −25% of residences within 0.31mi to 1.72mi of a wind turbine, with an average impact of −19% at an average distance of 0.65 miles to a wind turbine.

The Twin Grove II Wind Farm (McLean County, IL) study of a 198MW wind farm comprised of 120 turbines being 397ft in height over an 11,000 acres area. A paired sales analysis of residential property within the influence of the wind farm found the improved property is negatively impacted by the presence of wind turbines. The impact measured ranged from −46.6% to −7.7%, with the higher impact closest to the wind turbines and the impact diminishing as the distance is increased. The distances measured ranged 1,483ft to 5,481ft away from a residence.

The Twin Grove II Wind Farm also found an overall impact of −6.63% to −8.5% for vacant agricultural properties within the wind farm zone.

We conclude that the following impacts will be experienced by the Niyol wind farm on the client’s properties:

Download original document: “Impact Analysis of the Niyol Wind Farm on Surrounding Rural Residential and Agricultural Land Values in Logan County, Colorado

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Date added:  October 17, 2022
Law, MissouriPrint storyE-mail story

Understanding the Opposition: From a Knox County Land Owner

Author:  Peterson, Kris Campbell

“There are four of us leading this battle in Knox County [Missouri]. (We are all land owners, three of us are “Century Farms”). I can tell you they are smooth. Tenaska had been invited in by a local lawyer. From there they “quietly” approached land owners promising high payments for their land to be leased. “All you have to do is sign the contract”. Well … inside this contract is a “gag order” – meaning you cannot discuss said project with anyone or they will sue you. This is how they sneak in and you don’t even know.

One of the four I work with was checking his cattle one morning and caught several men in his pasture. He questioned them and they let it slip they were surveying for a substation – right next to his new house! That is when the alarms went up. We had surveyors all over us. “Looking for points” they would say. Now here is what you need to know. THEY CANNOT TRESPASS on you. They will say they have the “right to enter” because they are surveyors. However the only time the “right to enter law” comes into effect is if the survey is commissioned by the Department of Agriculture. Read all that again!

We locked gates and posted our farms. They climbed fences, cut chains and entered anyway. It was at this point my elderly Dad caught them and held them at gunpoint until the sheriff arrived.

Then came the smooth talking lease agents. They trespassed everywhere. In my barns. In my kennels. In my pastures. My parents are in their 70’s and they approached them on 14 different occasions. They only approached me once.

So fast forward to March of 2020. We hosted a “land owners meeting” at our community center. We lined up several presentations: Health, Livestock, Agricultural, and speeches by two ladies living inside a “project”. We had over 100 in attendance. And afterwards … the project lease acquisition came to a halt.

Then they attacked us.

We had crops destroyed. They brought in a helicopter and chased cattle. They opened gates. They drove through fences. We had a bull run to his death and had several cattle shot. This is No Joke, people. I cannot tell you with strong enough words just how dangerous this is.

INFRASOUND produced by the blades passing the towers will destroy your health, the breeding cycles of your livestock. They will deny it. But LOOK IT UP. Tucker Carlson even did a documentary on it. We got numbers for our commissioners.

We have eyes all over the county watching for strange “visitors”. We watch the commissioner meetings. WE SHOW UP. We are respectful, but let me tell you we make this company VERY nervous with our presence. But … why would we not? The first few meetings we had 20-25 land owners present. The last meeting? We had 44 farms represented. The four of us have locked borders with our neighbors and we have created “land masses” that had severed their project in 3 pieces. They have offered enormous amounts of money to land owners only to be turned down. You need to stand together and make them unwelcome. When they enter our area … we follow them. And I will give you a heads up … They do a lot of their activities at night, holidays and Sundays. Why sneak if this is such a righteous endeavor?

If I can help you guys I will.

The hidden things that they are not telling you: When they approach you, they have a top piece of paper. This paper states a dollar figure. The 30+ pages under that is what you need to be concerned with. They will try to not let you that. You sign the top and they keep the others. Inside this “contract” are little things you have to READ!!!!!

First: Once leased they are in control of your land. They will say … “Oh you can keep doing as you have always done”. This is a no. You will not be permitted to build any structure on your land without their approval. Anything over 35 feet can be removed. Read that again. I have a 100-year-old hip-roofed barn. It is an icon here. They cordially told me they would “take it down for free” once I signed.

Sure you can plant your crops!! But if they decide to do a bat study? They mow them off. If they replace a blade? They mow them off. If a blade is thrown? You are entitled a one-time payment for the damage. If it happens again? Sorry, Charlie.


Sure you can run cattle … but they are not liable for shutting gates if they should forget to close one.

That pretty red flashing light? Guess what … if they decommission the tower you have to maintain that for FAA purposes.

My favorite? They can use YOUR land as collateral for their projects. Yes, you read that correctly. They can take liens out on your land.

Another tidbit. They have the “quiet enjoyment” of your land for 30 (to 60) years.

We have not figured out this one: If they want to do something you can’t kick them off.

As for damage to your land. It is irreparable.

We were taken to Eminent Domain over a transmission line. They took 11 acres from us. they put the power line across the back side of our homesteaded farm. NOTHING grows under the line. No crops. Not even grass in the pasture. GPS does not work around the line. The line also interferes with the electronics on our combine and tractors.

Folks, I could write you a book … Get your ducks in a row now, educate your elderly neighbors. Help them understand. There is no such thing as free money.

Kris Campbell Peterson
July 20, 2022

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Date added:  October 3, 2022
Environment, U.S.Print storyE-mail story

Wind turbine wakes can impact down-wind vegetation greenness

Author:  Diffendorfer, Jay; Vanderhoof, Melanie; and Ancona, Zach

Abstract—Global wind energy has expanded 5-fold since 2010 and is predicted to expand another 8–10-fold over the next 30 years. Wakes generated by wind turbines can alter downwind microclimates and potentially downwind vegetation. However, the design of past studies has made it difficult to isolate the impact of wake effects on vegetation from land cover change. We used hourly wind data to model wake and non-wake zones around 17 wind facilities across the U.S. and compared remotely-sensed vegetation greenness in wake and non-wake zones before and after construction. We located sampling sites only in the dominant vegetation type and in areas that were not disturbed before or after construction. We found evidence for wake effects on vegetation greenness at 10 of 17 facilities for portions of, or the entire growing season. Evidence included statistical significance in Before After Control Impact statistical models, differences >3% between expected and observed values of vegetation greenness, and consistent spatial patterns of anomalies in vegetation greenness relative to turbine locations and wind direction. Wakes induced both increases and decreases in vegetation greenness, which may be difficult to predict prior to construction. The magnitude of wake effects depended primarily on precipitation and to a lesser degree aridity. Wake effects did not show trends over time following construction, suggesting the changes impact vegetation greenness within a growing season, but do not accrue over years. Even small changes in vegetation greenness, similar to those found in this study, have been seen to affect higher trophic levels. Given the rapid global growth of wind energy, and the importance of vegetation condition for agriculture, grazing, wildlife, and carbon storage, understanding how wakes from wind turbines impact vegetation is essential to exploit or ameliorate these effects.

Jay E. Diffendorfer, Melanie K. Vanderhoof, and Zach H. Ancona
Geosciences and Environmental Change Science Center, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado

Published 26 September 2022
Environmental Research Letters, Volume 17, Number 10

Download original document: “Wind turbine wakes can impact down-wind vegetation greenness

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Date added:  August 15, 2022
Delaware, ImpactsPrint storyE-mail story

Comments on Notice of Intent to develop a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on US Wind Marwin and Momentum offshore wind Construction & Operations Plan, BOEM 2022-0025

Author:  Stevenson, David

US Wind’s proposed offshore wind projects off the coast of Maryland will have direct impacts on Delaware as power is to be brought on shore, and turbines will be visible in Delaware. We represent over 1,400 individuals who have expressed concerns about offshore wind development to the Caesar Rodney Institute, and through the website Save Our Beach View. BOEM has stated they are accepting the Construction & Operations Plan (COP) as complete. We beg to differ and highlight below issues that need to be addressed before the COP is considered complete and before BOEM begins the EIS process.

David T. Stevenson
Director, Center for Energy & Environment
Caesar Rodney Institute
Newark, Delaware
June 22, 2022

1. US Wind mistakenly claims emissions savings from the project, and emission savings are the core reason to build the project.

2. BOEM has no suitable study to determine the cost impact of viewshed loss.

3. Maryland shifts costs to, and interferes with interstate tourism in Delaware in violation of Interstate Commerce provisions of the US Constitution.

4. US Wind left several mitigation plans undefined and incomplete.

5. Cumulative impacts are missing from the COP.

6. Discussions of impacts on marine life are incomplete.

7. Commercial fishing will be abandoned in the lease area.

BOEM has a clear duty to protect historic and future users of the lease area from interference from industrial-sized wind turbines. Major negative impacts will be inflicted especially on commercial and for-hire fisheries, tourist viewshed enjoyment, vessel traffic, Coast Guard search and rescue operations, scientific research, and the endangered Northern Right Whale and other marine mammals. Fisheries face not only a direct loss of gear, but also increased risk of collision damage to their vessels, loss of life from hampered search and rescue operations, and loss of the scientific data needed to protect fisheries. Potential loses in tourism will exacerbate social injustice as losses will disproportionately impact lower-wage service workers in restaurants, hotels, and fishing tourism. The COP is missing key information and requires serious modification before BOEM can begin an Environmental Impact Statement.

Download original document: “Comments on Notice of Intent to develop a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on US Wind Marwin and Momentum offshore wind Construction & Operations Plan, BOEM 2022-0025

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