Resource Documents: Noise (574 items)
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Author: Ambrose, Stephen
There is an unsaid purpose and intent for this request [from the Vermont Public Service Board (PSB)]. Might it be an acknowledgement that “Vermont’s wind turbine noise rule does not protect neighbors from excessive noise and adverse health impacts”? This is obviously due to persistent complaints, and at least one home abandonment. This solicitation for public comments should not be used to divert-delay-deny public attention. Wind turbine neighbors want the PSB to correct the current flawed regulations based on accepting for regulatory rules those the wind industry recommends. If the PSB sought advice from truly independent sources they would have learned that 45 dBA is only applicable for urban-residential areas and even for those communities is not sufficient to protect people. Ontario, and other Canadian provinces have regulations setting 40 dBA as the not-to-exceed threshold. Yet, recent studies have shown strong evidence that 40 dBA is not preventing adverse health impacts. Even 40 dBA is too loud. Somehow the cautionary warnings of the 1970s about 35 dBA for quiet rural-residential environments have been ignored. Standards such as ISO 1996 and ANSI’s S12.9 still support 35 dBA for nighttime noise in quiet rural regions.
The noise rule needs a large scale reduction in its permitted noise limits to protect and minimize noise complaints. Anything less will only continue the endless discussions for equivocating with fudging, quibbling, and evading the need to lower to 35 dBA. Adding superfluous and complicated measurements, procedures or protocols around the 45 dBA will only continue to result in failure. The PSB should understand this after receiving reams of unfathomable data from acousticians closely aligned with developers that has no connection to a human response.
The PSB should seek assistance from independent experts to establish a noise rule that minimizes adverse human responses. This noise limit must be easy to understand and enforce. The PSB should not have to deal with the intricacies of acoustic science, noise sources, propagation, and weather. These are the concerns for the noise consultants who are responsible to their wind developer clients, who need to advise their clients on how not to harm the public. The PSB should focus on public health and enforcing compliance; and not be negotiating mitigating options with developers, operators, or consultants.
The current wind turbine sound rule should be abandoned and replaced with the previous noise limits. The Environmental Board used Lmax for its regulations and that has been upheld by the Vermont Supreme Court (see page 11). The Lmax refers to the instantaneous maximum level (LAmax) relative to the background (LA90). People hear the instantaneous variations above the background and respond accordingly, which cannot be substituted with a time-weighted average. Adverse public reactions are shown to occur when the Lmax exceeds the background L90 by 10 dB.
Answers for most of the questions start on the next page …
Author: Ambrose, Stephen
Author: Court of Appeals of Indiana
‘Over the course of two hearings, the BZA had the opportunity to carefully consider the statutory setback requirement of Section 6.4 and its implications on the life, health, and safety of the surrounding landowners. It received evidence in favor of the project and in opposition of constructing the windfarm. Ultimately, and based on the evidence presented at the hearings, the BZA, in its approved Findings of Fact, explicitly found that “an additional setback is necessary to protect health and safety on non-participating properties and owners, and imposes as a condition on the grant of the special exception a minimum setback of 2,300 feet, to be measured from the center of the WECS turbine to the non-participating property line.”’
Author: Gwak, Doo Young; et al.
Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation.
Kiseop Yoon, Doo Young Gwak, Yeolwan Seong, Seunghoon Lee, Jiyoung Hong, and Soogab Lee
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
October 2016, Volume 30, Issue 10, pp 4503–4509
Kiseop Yoon is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University. He received his B.S. degree from the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University in 2011. His research interests are in the area of active noise control system and the perception of environmental noise.
Doo Young Gwak is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University. He received his B.S. degree from the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University in 2010. His research interests are in the area of psychoacoustics and the prediction of ‘drone’ noise.
Yeolwan Seong is a Researcher in the Defense Agency for Technology and Quality at Daejeon. He received his M.S. degree from the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University in 2013. His research interests are in the area of psychoacoustics and railway noise.
Seunghoon Lee is a Researcher in the Korea Aerospace Research Institute at Daejeon. He received his Ph.D. degree from the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University in 2014. His research interests are in the area of helicopter aerodynamics and wind turbine noise.
Jiyoung Hong is a Researcher in the Korea Railroad Research Institute at Uiwang. She received her Ph.D. degree from the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University in 2011. Her research interests are in the area of human noise perception and environmental noise impact assessment.
Soogab Lee is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University. He received his Ph.D. in Aeronautics and Astronautics from Stanford University in 1992. He worked as a Research Scientist at NASA Ames Research Center from 1992 to 1995. His research interests are in the area of aerodynamics and acoustics of rotating machines including wind turbine systems.