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Resource Documents by Cooper, Steven

Cooper, Steven; and Chan, Christopher
Determination of Acoustic Compliance of Wind Farms 
Abstract: An issue exists around the world of wind farms that comply with permit conditions giving rise to noise complaints. Approval limits are normally expressed in A-weighted levels (dB(A)) external to residential receivers. The distance from the wind farm to residential receivers can result in diffculty in establishing the dB(A) contribution of the wind farm, as the overall noise includes background noise that can provide masking of the wind turbine noise. The determination of the ambient background at a receiver . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
South Australia Wind Farm Guidelines Consultation 
The issue of an updated noise guideline for wind farms in South Australia represents the third (public) attempt at the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) to address wind turbine noise and unfortunately still contains significant errors and omissions as to to fundamental requirements with respect to the protection of the amenity of residents in proximity to wind farms. Despite complaints from residents and documentation in relation to such complaints, the EPA have not established appropriate criteria to protect the acoustic amenity . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
Use of synthesised or actual wind turbine noise for subjective evaluation purposes 
ABSTRACT— There are technical difficulties in producing an accurate wind turbine noise signal for subjective testing of the noise characteristics for different operational scenarios of wind turbines. There are differences in the subjective response when limiting the test signals to infrasound only versus the use of full spectra. The concept of “nocebo” effect that has been presented has relied upon the use of “synthesised wind turbine infrasound” that does not reflect the signature or pressure pulsations observed in full-spectrum field . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
Comparison of inaudible windfarm noise and the natural environment noise whilst monitoring brainwaves and heart rate 
ABSTRACT— A pilot study undertaken in late 2017 using inaudible wind turbine noise and persons having a heightened sensitivity to turbine noise found the test subjects could detect the presence of the signal by way of feeling (rather than hearing) the signal. A control group that had not been exposed to wind turbine noise was unable to detect or sense the inaudible signal. A single case study as a precursor to a further pilot study utilised inaudible wind turbine noise, . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
Simplified method for determination of “amplitude modulation” of audible and inaudible wind turbine noise 
ABSTRACT— The operation of a wind turbine results in a series of pulses where there is a significant instantaneous increase in the amplitude of the pressure signal dependent upon the loading (power output and wind strength) of the wind turbine. Such amplitude variations can be significant. The modulation of the amplitude of the acoustic signature for wind turbines is often referred to as “amplitude modulation”. One method of assessment of the degree of amplitude modulation for a wind turbine used . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven; and Chan, Chris
Subjective perception of wind turbine noise – The stereo approach 
The conduct of stereo measurements for both playback in high-quality headphones and in a hemi-anechoic room has been undertaken for a number of wind farms and other low-frequency noise sources as an expansion of the material previously presented at the Boston ASA meeting. The results of the additional monitoring, evaluation, and subjective analysis of this procedure are discussed and identifies the benefits of monitoring noise complaints and assessments of wind farm noise in stereo. The laboratory mono subjective system was . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
Reproducing wind farm infrasound for subjective testing – Just how accurate is the reproduced signal? 
In response to investigation of residents’ complaints concerning the operation of wind turbines, independent acousticians have identified the presence of a discrete infrasound/low frequency signature associated with the operation of the turbine to be present when such turbines are operating. The discrete signature of turbines when using narrowband analysis reveals peaks at the blade pass frequency (and harmonics of that frequency) to occur in the lower portion of the infrasound frequency band, generally below 10 Hz and a peak with . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
Wind farm infrasound – Are we measuring what is actually there or something else? 
Abstract: In the olden days of acoustics (predigital), low frequency analysis used analogue narrow band filters and cathode ray oscilloscopes for special problems leading to the general use of peak values. Analogue filters have time constants that can affect the derived rms values requiring caution where high crest factors are involved. Modern narrowband digital analysis is based on an FFT [fast Fourier transform] of the time signal to extract the periodic function that occurs in the time domain that are . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
Wind farm noise – an ethical dilemma for acousticians? 
Not since the opening of the Third Runway at Sydney Airport has there been so much publicity in Australia concerning noise – in this case wind farms. Putting aside the issue of noise versus inaudible noise there is a question being raised as to Members of the Society breaching the Code of Ethics. This is not the old question of Professional versus Learned Society. Reliance upon criteria contained in Guidelines or Standards may be an excuse by consultants that in . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
Comments on SA EPA and Resonate Acoustics report: “Infrasound Levels Near Windfarms and in Other Environments” 
Various wind developers and industry lobby groups both in Australia and around the world have been claiming that the recent report issued by the South Australian EPA and Resonate Acoustics is a scientifically valid document, that has confirmed infrasound associated with wind turbines is a non-event and persons raising such issues are simply scaremongering. A cursory examination of the document as set out below suggests a substantial degree of incompetence or alternatively, that it is a document intended to mislead . . . Complete article »

Cooper, Steven
Are wind farms too close to communities? 
Currently, state planning legislation in Australia suggests separation distances of 1-2km from wind farms. Noise limits incorporated in the various State guidelines and used for assessment purposes have no scientific studies to support the basis of the limits. The use of a dB(A) limit set well above the natural ambient background level does not protect the health and well-being of the community. The noise concepts used for wind farms in NSW ignore the fundamental premise of not creating ‘offensive noise’ . . . Complete article »

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