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Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World  

Author:  | Wildlife

ABSTRACT.—The global potential for wind power generation is vast, and the number of installations is increasing rapidly. We review case studies from around the world of the effects on raptors of wind-energy development. Collision mortality, displacement, and habitat loss have the potential to cause population-level effects, especially for species that are rare or endangered. The impact on raptors has much to do with their behavior, so careful siting of wind-energy developments to avoid areas suited to raptor breeding, foraging, or migration would reduce these effects. At established wind farms that already conflict with raptors, reduction of fatalities may be feasible by curtailment of turbines as raptors approach, and offset through mitigation of other human causes of mortality such as electrocution and poisoning, provided the relative effects can be quantified. Measurement of raptor mortality at wind farms is the subject of intense effort and study, especially where mitigation is required by law, with novel statistical approaches recently made available to improve the notoriously difficult-to-estimate mortality rates of rare and hard-to-detect species. Global standards for wind farm placement, monitoring, and effects mitigation would be a valuable contribution to raptor conservation worldwide.

RICHARD T. WATSON
The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
PATRICK S. KOLAR
Raptor Research Center, Department of Biological Science, Boise State University, Idaho, USA
MIGUEL FERRER
Delegación del CSIC en Andalucía—Casa de la Ciencia, Sevilla, Spain
TORGEIR NYGÅRD
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim
NAIRA JOHNSTON
Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada
W. GRAINGER HUNT
The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
HANNELINE A. SMIT-ROBINSON
BirdLife South Africa, Parklands, South Africa; and Applied Behavioural Ecological & Ecosystem Research Unit, UNISA, Florida, South Africa
CHRISTOPHER J. FARMER
DNV GL—Energy, Chalfont, Pennsylvania, USA
MANUELA HUSO
US Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
TODD E. KATZNER
US Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Boise, Idaho, USA

The Journal of Raptor Research, March 2018, Vol. 52, No. 1

Download original document: “Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World

This material is the work of the author(s) indicated. Any opinions expressed in it are not necessarily those of National Wind Watch.

The copyright of this material resides with the author(s). As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations. Send queries to query/wind-watch.org.

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