Resource Documents: Indiana (8 items)
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Farmers vs. lakers: Agriculture, amenity, and community in predicting opposition to United States wind energy development
Author: Bessette, Douglas; and Mills, Sarah
Utility-scale wind energy is now the largest source of renewable electricity in the US. Wind energy’s continued growth remains contingent upon finding adequate resource potential and transmission capacity, along with communities willing to host turbines. While previous research on the social acceptance of wind has relied predominantly on case studies, resident surveys, and reviews of development practices and strategies, here we use a new method. We use a wind contention survey of energy professionals (n = 46) to assess the contention associated with 69 existing wind farms in four US Midwest states and identify underlying characteristics, i.e., agricultural, land-use, and demographic characteristics, that may have predisposed communities to either support or oppose wind farm development. We then use publicly available data to parameterize and model those characteristics using wind farm contention as our dependent variable. Our analysis shows that a greater proportion of production-oriented farming and fewer natural amenities in a community are associated with reduced opposition to wind farm development. Additionally, and perhaps counterintuitively, communities with a greater percentage of residents that voted Republican in the 2016 Presidential election demonstrate less opposition. Rather than negating the need for employing best practices in community engagement, stakeholder development, and participatory decision-making processes, this study can help prepare developers for the type of reception that might await them in potential host communities.
Douglas L. Bessette, Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing
Sarah B. Mills, Graham Sustainability Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 72, February 2021, 101873
Author: Northern Indiana Public Service Company
Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission: Cause 45159 [link] —
Verified Direct Testimony of Andrew S. Campbell, Director of Regulatory Support & Planning, Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO) [link]
Q18. How will reliability be maintained when the wind isn’t blowing?
A18. NIPSCO will continue to dispatch its steam and gas fleet and other available wind generation, as well as purchase power from MISO, to meet customer demand and reliability needs throughout the term of the Roaming Bison Wind Energy PPA. This ensures that when the wind is not blowing customers will continue to receive reliable service every hour of every day.
Verified Direct Testimony of Benjamin Felton, Senior Vice President, NIPSCO Electric [link]
Q23. Do reductions in the dispatch of NIPSCO’s coal units impact the cost to operate those units?
A23. Yes. NIPSCO’s coal units were engineered to be used as base load units that run consistently over long periods of time, and they were not designed to ramp up and down in response to short term market signals. As those units become less economical, the cost to operate them increases because in addition to the increased maintenance required of older units, the added expenses to ramp the units up and down are incurred more frequently. NIPSCO must remain mindful of how that added expense to customers balances against the impact on reliability. In spite of the cost control efforts NIPSCO has undertaken as I have referenced above, the operational characteristics of these plants dictate that some increases in costs cannot be avoided when the plants are operated outside of the parameters for which they were designed.
[This was the same Cause in which the Sierra Club asserted their interest, which was for an arm of the energy industry, not the environment: “Sierra Club seeks full intervention in order to ensure that its interests in lower cost and cleaner energy options are fully represented, and to bring to this proceeding its expertise in electric utility matters.” (link)]
Author: Miller, Pat
Pat Miller of WOWO talks about wind turbines and wind energy with Tom Stacy from Save Western Ohio and Larry Long and Nick Stanger from Whitley County Concerned Citizens. Summer 2011.
Tom Stacy: “Our politicians should never have asked, how many kilowatt-hours can we produce with wind – the real question should always have been, how much fossil fuel energy can wind energy replace. The two answers are very different, because so much fossil fuel energy is required in support of wind and that fossil fuel energy is in city-driving mode … and burning its fuel a lot less efficiently than it would if you just used the natural gas plant instead of wind.”
This letter was received by a landowner in Indiana (available here by courtesy of Citizens for the Preservation of Rural Boone County):
As you may know, Enxco has been working to develop a wind energy project in western Boone County. We’ve been discussing the project with landowners in the area and the support has been outstanding! In fact, more than 55 landowners representing over 10,800 aces have made contractual commitments to the project.
Youa re receiving this letter because your property is bordered by larger parcels currently leased for turbine placement. Although we do not propose to locate a wind turbine on your property, Enxco treats wind as a community resource and offeres to compensate all landowners within the project. In return for the compensation, we are respectfully requesting an exclusive lease of your wind rights.
Our Wind Rights Lease Agreement provides for the following payemtns to you:
- During the Pre-Operating Period (up to five years), $250 per year.
- During the Operating Period (30 years), $1,000 per year with an increase of 2.5% compounded annually. …
What are “wind rights”? Here’s the relevant section from a lease in Iowa:
Section 1.2 Wind Easement
Any obstruction to the free flow of the wind is prohibited throughout the entire area of the real property owned by Grantor and described on Exhibit B (the “Easement Premises”), which shall consist horizontally three hundred and sixty degrees (360°) from any point where any Wind Facilities are or may be located at any time from time to time (each such location referred to as a “Site”) and for a distance from each Site to the boundaries of the Easement Premises, together vertically through all space located above the surface of the Easement Premises, that is, one hundred eighty degrees (180°) or such greater number or numbers of degrees as may be necessary to extend from each point on and along a line drawn along the surface from each point along the exterior boundary of the Easement Premises through each Site to each point and on and along such line to the opposite exterior boundary of the Easement Premises. Trees, structures and improvements located on the Easement Premises as of the date of this Easement shall be allowed to remain and Grantee may not require their removal. Grantor may not place or plant any trees, structures or improvements on the Easement Premises after the date of this Easement that are greater than thirty-five (35) feet in height or within twelve hundred (1,200) feet of a wind generation turbine or meteorological tower, which may, in Grantee’s sole judgment, impede or interfere with the flow of wind to any Site or Wind Facilities, unless Grantor has received prior written approval from Grantee, approval not to be unreasonably withheld for any such trees, structure or improvement. The provisions of this Section 1.2 shall survive for the full Term of this Easement including any and all Extended Terms and Termination.
“Wind rights” may also include the following, also from the same Iowa lease agreement, protecting the wind company’s right to “quiet use and enjoyment of the premises” ( ! ):
Section 5.2 Quiet Enjoyment
As long as Grantee is not in default under this Easement, Grantee shall have the quiet use and enjoyment of the Premises in accordance with the terms of this Easement without any interference of any kind by Grantor or any person claiming through Grantor. Grantor and its activities on the Premises and any grant of rights Grantor makes to any other person shall not interfere with any of Grantee’s activities pursuant to this Easement, Grantor shall not interfere with any of Grantee’s activities pursuant to this Easement, and Grantor shall not interfere or allow interference with the wind speed or wind direction over the Easement Premises or otherwise engage in activities which might impede or decrease the output or efficiency of the Wind Facilities.