Resource Documents: Ontario (87 items)
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Author: Palmer, William
Numerous papers, including some by this author, have identified what are dismissed with disdain as “anecdotal reports” of adverse impacts that occurred with the start up of wind turbines in the environment of those impacted. However, there is a solid basis for presenting such lists. It mirrors the approach taken by most medical doctors when a patient first presents himself or herself with a new adverse health complaint. Taking a patient “history” is the way most doctors begin. Similarly, engineers and problem solvers often begin to address a new problem by looking for changes that have occurred. Yet, some maintain there is no proof that the start up of the turbines was the change that caused the impact, even though the conditions diminish when the person vacates the area, and recur when the person returns. They may attribute it to the stress self-generated by refusing to accept a change. Ignoring those suffering will not result in solving the problem predicted by Kryter of people making real-life behavioral changes. The rigorous method established in this paper permits measuring the physical emissions (noise) from wind turbines, and confirming some aspects of the quality of the noise that are identified as problematic to demonstrate evidence of the cause for the suffering.
William K. G. Palmer, P.Eng., TRI-LEA-EM
7th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise – Rotterdam – 2nd to 5th May 2017
Download original document: “A Rigorous Method of Addressing Wind Turbine Noise”
Author: Zimmerling, Ryan; and Francis, Charles
ABSTRACT: Wind turbines have been hypothesized to affect bat populations; however, no comprehensive analysis of bat mortality from the operation of wind turbines in Canada has been conducted. We used data from carcass searches for 64 wind farms, incorporating correction factors for scavenger removal, searcher efficiency, and carcasses that fell beyond the area searched to estimate bat collision mortality associated with wind turbines in Canada. On average, 15.5 ± 3.8 (95% CI) bats were killed per turbine per year at these sites (range = 0–103 bats/turbine/yr at individual wind farms). Based on 4,019 installed turbines (the no. installed in Canada by Dec 2013), an estimated 47,400 bats (95% CI = 32,100–62,700) are killed by wind turbines each year in Canada. Installed wind capacity is growing rapidly in Canada, and is predicted to increase approximately 3.5-fold over the next 15 years, which could lead to direct mortality of approximately 166,000 bats/year. Long-distance migratory bat species (e.g., hoary bat [Lasiurus cinereus], silver-haired bat [Lasionycteris noctivagans], eastern red bat [Lasiurus borealis]) accounted for 73% of all mortalities. These species are subject to additional mortality risks when they migrate into the United States. The little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), which was listed as Endangered in 2014 under the Species At Risk Act (SARA), accounted for 13% of all mortalities from wind turbines, with most of the mortality (87%) occurring in Ontario. Population-level impacts may become an issue for some bat species as numbers of turbines increase.
J. RYAN ZIMMERLING, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Gatineau, QC, Canada
CHARLES M. FRANCIS, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON, Canada
The Journal of Wildlife Management; DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.21128
Volume 80, Issue 8, November 2016, Pages 1360–1369
Download original document: “Bat Mortality Due to Wind Turbines in Canada”
Author: Palmer, William
Introduction. A common regulatory acceptance criterion for wind turbine installation in Canada is that sound pressure level does not exceed 40 dBA outside a home when the wind speed at 10 metres elevation does not exceed 4 metres per second. A clue to the ineffectiveness of this criterion can be seen from over 2700 complaints filed in Ontario with regulators by residents living in homes where acoustic conditions were predicted in approved models to comply with the current criterion. Residents noted the intrusiveness of an imposed sound higher in amplitude and different in quality than the pre-existing background. Residents reported disrupted sleep, and adverse health consequences. Fundamental premises of Environmental Protection Acts (EPA) are that emissions of a contaminant such as noise should not cause an adverse effect including loss of enjoyment of normal use of property, or annoyance that lead to human health impacts. …
Discussion. The subject of amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise emissions (otherwise described as a cyclical noise rising and falling in magnitude) has been a principal focus of wind turbine noise international conferences in Glasgow (2015) and Denver (2013). Monitoring of the sound inside homes displays a different character than outside, showing pulses with peak to trough amplitudes exceeding 5 dB at frequencies that are within the audible range. A simple example shows that dBA weighting does not adequately reflect perception and annoyance. White noise at 40dBA has a very different perception than pink noise at 40 dBA.
William K.G. Palmer, TRI-LEA-EM, Paisley, Ontario
Canadian Acoustics – Acoustique canadienne Vol. 44 No. 3 (2016) – pp. 42-43
Download original document: “Considerations regarding an acoustic criterion for wind turbine acceptability”
Author: Jalali, Leila; Bigelow, Philip; et al.
‘Sleep, a natural behavioral state and a vital part of every individual’s life, involves distinct characteristics and many vital physiological changes in the body’s organs that are fundamental for physical and mental health. The physiological processes involve protein biosynthesis, excretion of specific hormones, and memory consolidation, all of which prepare the individual for the next wake period. Fragmented and insufficient sleep can adversely affect general health impacting daytime alertness and performance, quality of life, and health, and potentially lead to serious long-term health effects.
‘Sleep disturbance is considered the most serious nonauditory effect of environmental noise exposure. Harnessing wind energy has resulted in a new source of environmental noise, and wind is one of the fastest growing forms of electricity production worldwide. Canada’s current installed capacity is over 10,000 MW, with an anticipated minimum of 55,000 MW by 2025. This growth in wind energy development is not without controversy, as health effects such as noise annoyance and sleep disturbance have been reported by residents living close to wind developments. Such reports are increasing in Canada and worldwide, despite the adoption of setbacks and other measures that have been effective for other sources of noise pollution. …’
Significant findings reported:
‘[R]eported quality of sleep significantly declined after exposure (P = 0.008). Participants also reported higher levels of stress before bedtime (P = 0.039) and in the morning (P = 0.064), and also reported feeling more sleepy (P = 0.013) in the morning and throughout the day (P = 0.014) after exposure. …
‘Noise difference [between preoperation and operation of turbines] correlated with the difference in the number of awakenings (r = 0.605, P = 0.001), SSC [sleep stage changes to a lighter stage] difference (r = 0.600, P = 0.001), arousal difference (r = 0.551, P = 0.004), and percentage of S2 [stage 2 sleep] difference (r = −0.499, P = 0.009).’
Leila Jalali, Philip Bigelow, Mahmood Gohari, Diane Williams, and Steve McColl, School of Public Health and Health Systems, and Mohammad-Reza Nezhad-Ahmadi, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Noise & Health 2016;18:194-205