Resource Documents: Prince Edward Island (3 items)
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Using residential proximity to wind turbines as an alternative exposure measure to investigate the association between wind turbines and human health
Author: Barry, Rebecca; Sulsky, Sandra; and Kreiger, Nancy
[Abstract] This analysis uses data from the Community Noise and Health Study developed by Statistics Canada to investigate the association between residential proximity to wind turbines and health-related outcomes in a dataset that also provides objective measures of wind turbine noise. The findings indicate that residential proximity to wind turbines is correlated with annoyance and health-related quality of life measures. These associations differ in some respects from associations with noise measurements. Results can be used to support discussions between communities and wind-turbine developers regarding potential health effects of wind turbines.
[Results] Results suggest that proximity to wind turbines is inversely associated with the environment domain quality of life score (β = 1.23, SE = 0.145, p = 0.046). This association suggests that every kilometre a person lives further away from a wind turbine is associated with a 1.23 point increase in score on the environmental health quality of life scale. A higher score is indicative of a higher environmental quality of life. … Distance to wind turbines was also found to be strongly associated with increased annoyance (OR = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.53, p = 0.001). This suggests that the odds of reporting being annoyed by a turbine are reduced by about 20% for every kilometer a person lives further away from a wind turbine. …
[Discussion] These results show that living closer in proximity to wind turbines is negatively correlated with self-rated environmental quality of life and physical health quality of life. These findings suggest that the mechanism of effect may not be noise, or not noise alone, and may include visual sight, vibrations, shadow flicker, sub-audible low frequency sound, or mechanisms that include individual subjective experiences and attitudes towards wind turbines. … Our findings strengthen the argument that wind turbines are associated with annoyance, as this association is now found with both modelled A-weighted sound pressure levels and with residential distance to wind turbines. Other research has found that individuals reporting annoyance due to environmental noise also report health conditions including ischemic heart disease, depression, and migraines.
Rebecca Barry and Nancy Kreiger, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Sandra I. Sulsky, Ramboll Environ US, Amherst, Massachusetts
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 143 (6), June 2018, 3278–3282
Analysis, modeling, and prediction of infrasound and low frequency noise from wind turbine installations
Author: MG Acoustics
MG Acoustics has carried out the analysis, modeling, and prediction of infrasound and low frequency noise from wind turbines at two different sites, as part of the Health Canada study. This work has been divided into two parts, Phase 1 and Phase 2, associated with a Prince Edward Island site and a Southern Ontario site, respectively. There are several overall objectives:
- investigate the use of Harmonoise/Nord2000 weather classes with Environment Canada weather data to predict sound speed profiles
- investigate methods to separate low-frequency wind turbine noise from other sources of noise
- investigate the directivity of wind turbine noise sources at infrasonic frequencies
- compute wind turbine noise sound pressure levels at long range using state-of-the-art methods [e.g., Parabolic Equation (PE) and Fast Field Program (FFP)], to guide Health Canada in their use of Harmonoise P2P for predicting wind turbine noise propagation
- compare these numerical predictions to experimental results extracted from measurements under a variety of meteorological conditions
Infrasound and low frequency noise from two wind turbine sites (PEI and Southern Ontario locations) has been addressed. This work allows Health Canada to evaluate whether or not infrasound and/or low frequency noise (from wind turbines in the locations specified) can be detected at different distances; and secondly to determine whether the Parabolic Equation method of calculation gives an adequate explanation of the experimental values with regards to infrasound and/low frequency and distances at which it can be detected. Thirdly, the results should allow Health Canada to reliably make infrasound and low frequency noise predictions (using Harmonoise) at southern Ontario sites.
The work has been completed in two phases:
1st Phase – Analysis of infrasound and low frequency noise measurements and analysis of meteorological data will be completed including the generation of theoretical predictions at the PEI site. This phase of the project has been described in the report “Analysis, Modeling, and Prediction of Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise from Wind Turbine Installation. Phase 1: PEI Site. Final Report”, submitted in February 2014.
2nd Phase – Modeling has been carried out and applied to wind turbines sites in southern Ontario. This phase of the project has been described in the report “Analysis, Modeling, and Prediction of Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise from Wind Turbine Installation. Phase 2: Southern Ontario Site. Final Report”, submitted in February 2014.
This file presents results from the calculation of wind turbine noise levels for 1238 homes in the study. Noise results are presented according to the distance from the closest wind turbine to the participant’s home.
dBA calculations were based on wind turbine sound power levels from the manufacturers, which were verified for consistency with field measurements, and were derived according to international standards (ISO 9613-1 and ISO 9613-2), which were incorporated into a sound propagation modelling package (Cadna A version 4.4). The model also took into account geographical features which can influence sound propagation around the dwellings in the study, such as topography, vegetation and water features.
dBC noise levels were also derived from manufacturer supplied sound spectra and were supplemented by field measurements to extend the wind turbine sound power levels to lower frequencies (down to 16Hz). Following the same methodology and parameters that were used to determine A-weighted levels, the C-weighted sound levels were derived using the Cadna A version 4.4 software package.
The standard uncertainties in these results are +/- 30m for the distances to the nearset wind turbine and +/-5dB for the dBA and dBC noise levels for residences that are situated up to 1.6 km to the closest wind turbine. After 1.6 km, the uncertainties, evaluated according to the ISO 1996-2 standard, are derived according to the following formula: 1 + d/0.4, where d represents the distance to the nearest turbine (in km). As such, the uncertainty for a dwelling that is situated 10km away would be +/- 26 dB.
When examining these results, it is important to keep in mind that although some dwellings may be situated at approximately the same distance to the nearest wind turbine, they can receive different noise levels. This can be explained by the fact that each residence can be exposed to different numbers and models of wind turbines, which can generate more or less noise depending on their power output and physical characteristics, as well as the different geographical features that surround each residence, which can have an impact on noise propagation.
Self-reported and objectively measured health indicators among a sample of Canadians living within the vicinity of industrial wind turbines
Author: Michaud, David; Keith, Stephen; et al.
This is the detailed description of the methodology used for the Health Canada/Statistics Canada “Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study”, the preliminary results of which are summarized at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/noise-bruit/turbine-eoliennes/summary-resume-eng.php.
From the summary of results:
The following were not found to be associated with WTN exposure:
- self-reported sleep (e.g., general disturbance, use of sleep medication, diagnosed sleep disorders);
- self-reported illnesses (e.g., dizziness, tinnitus, prevalence of frequent migraines and headaches) and chronic health conditions (e.g., heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes); and
- self-reported perceived stress and quality of life.
While some individuals reported some of the health conditions above, the prevalence was not found to change in relation to WTN levels.
Statistically significant exposure-response relationships were found between increasing WTN levels and the prevalence of reporting high annoyance. These associations were found with annoyance due to noise, vibrations, blinking lights, shadow and visual impacts from wind turbines. In all cases, annoyance increased with increasing exposure to WTN [wind turbine noise] levels. …
- WTN annoyance was found to be statistically related to several self-reported health effects including, but not limited to, blood pressure, migraines, tinnitus, dizziness, scores on the PSQI, and perceived stress.
- WTN annoyance was found to be statistically related to measured hair cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
- The above associations for self-reported and measured health endpoints were not dependent on the particular levels of noise, or particular distances from the turbines, and were also observed in many cases for road traffic noise annoyance.
- Although Health Canada has no way of knowing whether these conditions may have either pre-dated, and/or are possibly exacerbated by, exposure to wind turbines, the findings support a potential link between long term high annoyance and health.
- Findings suggest that health and well-being effects may be partially related to activities that influence community annoyance, over and above exposure to wind turbines.
Download original document: “Self-reported and objectively measured health indicators among a sample of Canadians living within the vicinity of industrial wind turbines: Social survey and sound level modelling methodology”