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Resource Documents by Hansen, Colin

Hansen, Kristy; Zajamšek, Branko; and Hansen, Colin
Investigation of a microphone height correction for long-range wind farm noise measurements
Abstract: In the measurement of wind farm noise, it is standard practice to mount outdoor microphones at a height of 1.5 m. On the other hand, measurements at this height can be affected by wind-induced noise, which has the potential to mask the noise of interest, particularly at low and infrasonic frequencies. Therefore, to minimise wind-induced noise, it is advantageous to measure on or below the ground, where the wind speed is close to zero. However, results from measurements taken at . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Kristy; Nguyen, Phuc; Zajamšek, Branko; Catcheside, Peter; and Hansen, Colin
Prevalence of wind farm amplitude modulation at long-range residential locations
Abstract: The presence of amplitude modulation (AM) in wind farm noise has been shown to result in increased annoyance. Therefore, it is important to determine how often this characteristic is present at residential locations near a wind farm. This study investigates the prevalence and characteristics of wind farm AM at 9 different residences located near a South Australian wind farm that has been the subject of complaints from local residents. It is shown that an audible indoor low-frequency tone was . . . Complete article »

Zajamšek, Branko; Hansen, Kristy; Doolan, Con; and Hansen, Colin
Characterisation of wind farm infrasound and low-frequency noise
This paper seeks to characterise infrasound and low-frequency noise (ILFN) from a wind farm, which contains distinct tonal components with distinguishable blade-pass frequency and higher harmonics. Acoustic measurements were conducted at dwellings in the vicinity of the wind farm and meteorological measurements were taken at the wind farm location and dwellings. Wind farm ILFN was measured frequently under stable and very stable atmospheric conditions and was also found to be dependent on the time of year. For noise character assessment, . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Colin
Submission to the Senate Select Committee on Wind Turbines: Hansen
Thank you for the invitation to provide a submission to this enquiry. My submission is relevant to items (c), (d), (e) and (f) in the terms of reference, as these relate to my areas of expertise which include acoustics, vibration, and noise measurement and assessment. As you will be aware, the recent NHMRC study concluded that “there is currently no consistent evidence that wind farms cause adverse health effects in humans”. However, there are also no studies that show that . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Kristy; Zajamšek, Branko; and Hansen, Colin
Comparison of the noise levels measured in the vicinity of a wind farm for shutdown and operational conditions
ABSTRACT Outdoor and indoor microphone measurements have been taken in the vicinity of the Waterloo wind farm at a number of locations during periods when the nearby wind farm was operational as well as when it was shutdown. The majority of the shutdowns were of short duration and deliberate on the part of the wind farm operator, as they were associated with the recent EPA noise impact study. However, one of the shutdowns lasted for several days as it was . . . Complete article »

Zajamšek, Branko; Hansen, Kristy; and Hansen, Colin
Investigation of the time-dependent nature of infrasound measured near a wind farm
ABSTRACT It is well-known that wind farm noise is dominated by low-frequency energy at large distances from the wind farm, where the high frequency noise has been more attenuated than low-frequency noise. It has also been found that wind farm noise is highly variable with time due to the influence of atmospheric factors such as atmospheric turbulence, wake turbulence from upstream turbines and wind shear, as well as effects that can be attributed to blade rotation. Nevertheless, many standards that . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Colin
Limitations of South Australia noise regulations
I am writing to provide my opinions concerning some of the problems associated with the 2009 SA Guidelines for wind farm noise and in particular I am writing in support of the comments made by the well‐respected acoustical consultant, Mr Les Huson in his February, 2014 report reviewing the Flyers Creek wind farm approval and his November, 2011 report for the Cooranga North Community in which he described his outside to inside noise reduction measurements. The opinions I express here . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Colin
Comments on the 2013 SA EPA Waterloo Wind Farm Environmental Noise Study
The following document is an analysis of the recent “Waterloo Wind Farm Environmental Noise Study” conducted by the South Australian Environmental Protection Agency (SA EPA). Overall, the report is well-written and reflects awareness of current international guidelines on low frequency noise and infrasound. The use of specialised low frequency microphones and multi-layered windshields (in some cases) indicates that attempts have been made to ensure that the infrasound and low frequency noise is measured as accurately as possible. The inclusion of . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Kristy; Zajamšek, Branko; and Hansen, Colin
Analysis of Unweighted Low Frequency Noise and Infrasound Measured at a Residence in the Vicinity of a Wind Farm
To characterise the noise at several residences located nearby a South Australian wind farm, time-data files as well as the third-octave spectra have been measured indoors and outdoors using low-frequency microphones fitted with various wind shields. Five consecutive nights of data have been analysed and four cases are presented here to highlight the importance of atmospheric stability and the relative wind direction between the wind farm and a residence on the measured results. In the downwind cases, two low frequency . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Colin
Letter to Victoria Dept. of Health re: acoustics of wind turbine noise
The reason I felt compelled to write to you is that I have a number of concerns about the accuracy of some of the statements made in your document, “Wind farms, sound and health: Technical information”. By way of introduction, I have been researching, consulting and teaching acoustics and noise control for more than 40 years and have published numerous papers as well as 10 books on the subject. I find that chapters 1 to 3 contain information that lay . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Kristy; Henrys, Nicholas; Hansen, Colin; Doolan, Con; and Moreau, Danielle
Wind farm noise – what is a reasonable limit in rural areas?
CONCLUSIONS This paper has highlighted that the wind farm noise limits stated in the EPA guidelines (2009) do not ensure adequate protection of the amenity of rural communities. In addition, the concept of zoning has been challenged and background noise levels measured at each residence are proposed as a more suitable method for indicating acceptable noise limits at a given location. A dose response study specific to South Australian rural areas is considered pertinent to provide further guidance for selection . . . Complete article »

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