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Resource Documents by Schirmacher, Michael

Hein, Cris; and Schirmacher, Michael
Impact of wind energy on bats: A summary of our current knowledge
Abstract Since 2003, when it was discovered that large numbers of bats were being killed at wind turbines in the eastern United States, our understanding of the impact of wind energy development on bats has increased and consistent patterns of fatality, including seasonality and species composition have become evident. Yet, many questions remain despite the wealth of data collected across numerous post-construction monitoring studies. We synthesized the recent literature to provide an overview of our current understanding of patterns of . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; Huso, Manuela; Schirmacher, Michael; and Hayes, John
Altering turbine speed reduces bat mortality at wind-energy facilities
Wind-turbine operations are associated with bat mortality worldwide; minimizing these fatalities is critically important to both bat conservation and public acceptance of wind-energy development. We tested the effectiveness of raising wind-turbine cut-in speed – defined as the lowest wind speed at which turbines generate power to the utility system, thereby reducing turbine operation during periods of low wind speeds – to decrease bat mortality at the Casselman Wind Project in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, over a 2-year period. Observed bat mortality . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; Hein, Cris; Schirmacher, Michael; Huso, Manuela; and Szewczaik, Joseph
Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines
Abstract. Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; Schirmacher, Michael; Huso, Manuela; and Hayes, John
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities
“Data previously collected at operating wind energy facilities indicate that a substantial portion of the bat fatalities occurs during relatively low-wind conditions over a relatively short period of time during the summer-fall bat migration period (Arnett et al. 2008). Some curtailment of turbine operations during these conditions and during this period of time has been proposed as a possible means of reducing impacts to bats (Kunz et al. 2007, Arnett et al. 2008). Indeed, recent results from studies in Canada . . . Complete article »

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