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Environmental issues associated with wind energy — a review

Recognized as one of the most mature renewable energy technologies, wind energy has been developing rapidly in recent years. Many countries have shown interest in utilizing wind power, but they are concerned about the environmental impacts of the wind farms. The continuous growth of the wind energy industry in many parts of the world, especially in some developing countries and ecologically vulnerable regions, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of wind farm induced environmental impacts. The environmental issues caused by wind farms were reviewed in this paper by summarizing existing studies. Available mitigation measures to minimize these adverse environmental impacts were discussed in this document. The intention of this paper is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge about environmental issues associated with wind energy development as well as strategies to mitigate environmental impacts to wind energy planners and developers.

Renewable Energy 75 (2015) 911–921

Sections:
Wind energy induced environmental issues:
Effects on birds
Effects on bats
Effects on marine species
Deforestation and soil erosion
Noise
Visual impact
Reception of radio waves and weather radar
Climate change

Mitigation of wind energy environmental risks:
Limiting the effects on birds and bats
Reducing influence on marine environment and climate
Noise reduction
Mitigating visual impact
Reducing electromagnetic interference

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