Roseland Community Energy Trust submitted proposals to construct six wind turbines on grain fields near the village of Scarcliffe.
Bolsover District Council rejected the plans because “it would have a significant detrimental impact on the local heritage”.
The trust had hoped the wind farm would make £750,000 profit per year.
It said money generated would have been put back into the community to support new businesses, fund university places for local children and retrain unemployed people in the area.
Objections to the plans had included concerns about the potential damage to the local heritage and conservation areas and health problems.
More than 100 people attended a meeting on Wednesday to hear members of the council’s planning committee turn down the plans.
A spokesman for the council said: “The planning committee had the chance to hear from several speakers, for and against the proposal, before making their decision.
“Councillors deliberated the decision, before rejecting the application on the grounds that it would have a significant detrimental impact on the local heritage assets in the landscape of the limestone region.
“The impacts to these heritage assets outweighed the financial benefits that were offered.”