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How-to guide to criteria for siting wind turbines to prevent health risks from sound 

Author:  | Health, Noise, Ordinances, Regulations

Also see “Simple guidelines for siting wind turbines to prevent health risks” by the same authors


A new source of community noise is spreading rapidly across the rural U.S. countryside. Industrial-scale wind turbines (WT), a common sight in many European countries, are now actively promoted by federal and state governments in the U.S. as a way to reduce coal-powered electrical generation and global warming. The presence of industrial wind projects is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years, given the tax incentives and other economic and political support currently available for renewable energy projects in the U.S.

As a part of the widespread enthusiasm for renewable energy, state and local governments are promoting ”Model Ordinances” for siting industrial wind farms which establish limits for noise and other potential hazards. These are used to determine where wind projects can be located in communities, which are predominantly rural and often extremely quiet during the evening and night. Yet, complaints about noise from residents near existing industrial wind turbine installations are common. This raises serious questions about whether current state and local government siting guidelines for noise are sufficiently protective for people living close to the wind turbine developments. Research is emerging that suggests significant health effects are associated with living too close to modern industrial wind turbines. Research into the computer modeling and other methods used to determine the layout of wind turbine developments, including the distance from nearby residences, is at the same time showing that the output of the models may not accurately predict sound propagation. The models are used to make decisions about how close a turbine can be to a home or other sensitive property. The errors in the predicted sound levels can easily result in inadequate setback distances thus exposing the property owner to noise pollution and potential health risks. Current information suggests the models should not be used for siting decisions unless known errors and tolerances are applied to the results.

Our formal presentation and paper on this topic (Simple guidelines for siting wind turbines to prevent health risks) is an abbreviated version of this essay. The formal paper was presented to the Institute of Noise Control Engineers (INCE) at its July Noise-Con 2008 conference in Detroit, MI, A copy of the paper is included at the end of this document. The formal paper covered the community noise studies performed in response to complaints, research on health issues related to wind turbine noise, critiques of noise studies performed by consultants working for the wind developer, and research/technical papers on wind turbine sound immissions and related topics. The formal paper also reviewed sound studies conducted by consultants for governments, the wind turbine owner, or the local residents for a number of sites with known health or annoyance problems. The purpose was to determine if a set of simple guidelines using dBA and dBC sound levels can serve as the ‘safe’ siting guidelines for noise and its effects on communities and people. The papers considered in our review included, but were not limited to, those listed in Tables 1-4 on pages 2 through 4 of the Noise-Con document.

This essay expands upon the Noise–Con paper and includes information to support the findings and recommended criteria. We are proposing very specific, yet reasonably simple to implement and assess criteria for audible and non-audible sound on adjacent properties and also present a sample noise ordinance and the procedures needed for pre-construction sound test, computer model requirements and follow-up tests (including those for assessing compliance).

The purpose of this expanded paper is to outline a rational, evidence-based set of criteria for industrial wind turbine siting in rural communities, using:

1) A review of the European and other wind turbine siting criteria and existing studies of the prevalence of noise problems after construction;

2) Primary review of sound studies done in a variety of locations in response to wind turbine noise complaints (Table 1);

3) Review of publications on health issues for those living in close proximity to wind turbines (Table 2);

4) Review of critiques of pre-construction developer noise impact statements (Table 3); and

5) Review of technical papers on noise propagation and qualities from wind turbines (Table 4).

The Tables are on pages 2-4 of the formal paper. We also cite standard international criteria for community noise levels and allowances for low-frequency noise.

Download original document: “How to guide to criteria for siting wind turbines to prevent health risks from sound

This material is the work of the author(s) indicated. Any opinions expressed in it are not necessarily those of National Wind Watch.

The copyright of this material resides with the author(s). As part of its noncommercial educational effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations. Queries e-mail.

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