[as deleted from Wikipedia, 15 August 2009, updated to January 2011]
Health Effects of Wind Power
The effect of noise from large wind turbines (over 200 feet high to the extent of the blades) is often a highly contentious issue when they are sited near homes. Sound power levels of 105 dB(A) at moderate wind speeds (e.g., 8 m/s [18 mph]) are typical for wind turbines of 1-2 megawatts capacity. Potential annoyance in rural areas, where there is a greater expectation of quiet, especially at night – when the ambient sound level may be 25 dB(A) or even less – is one issue. The possibility of sleep disturbance raises another issue, as it can lead to stress and ill health. Noise limits and setbacks between wind turbines are homes are therefore necessary, but determining what those limits and setbacks should be – considering not only distance, but also topography, ground cover, atmospheric conditions, and existing ambient sound levels – pits wind energy developers, who have limited areas of land to work with, against the concerns of neighboring residents.
Several physicians have speculated that there are links among some symptoms – ranging from headaches and tinnitus to vertigo and memory problems – in people who live near large wind turbines. This theory was first advanced by British physician Amanda Harry. It was subsequently given the name “wind turbine syndrome” and a possible pathophysiological explanation by New York physician Nina Pierpont.
Pierpont speculated that the symptoms are caused chiefly by low-frequency noise and vibration, as well as shadow flicker, from the wind turbines affecting the body’s various balance organs, including the utricle and saccule (vestibular organs) of the inner ear. British sleep expert Christopher Hanning, however, has noted that sleep deprivation can cause most of the symptoms.
Both Harry and Pierpont based their research on informal surveys and have called for large-scale government-sponsored epidemiological and other studies to define and quantify the extent of wind turbine–related illnesses.
Wind Turbine Syndrome
Nina Pierpont lists the following symptoms of Wind Turbine Syndrome:
- sleep disturbance
- tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ears)
- ear pressure
- dizziness (vertigo, lightheadedness, sensation of almost fainting, etc.)
- vertigo (sensation of spinning, or the room moving)
- visual blurring
- tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
- problems with concentration and memory
- panic episodes associated with sensations of internal pulsation or quivering, which arise while awake or asleep
It needs to be emphasized that existing case series are not case-control studies. They consist of self-selected groups and rely on the subjects’ recall of their health status before the turbines began operating and on their reports that symptoms were relieved when leaving the area of the wind turbines.
Dr. Amanda Harry, in a February 2007 article titled “Wind Turbines, Noise and Health”, wrote of 39 people, including residents of New Zealand and Australia, who suffered from the sounds emitted by wind turbines.
Dr. Nina Pierpont interviewed 10 families living near large (1.5-3 megawatts) wind turbines, for a total of 38 people from infants to age 75. People in these families had noticed that they developed new symptoms after the turbines started turning near their homes. They noticed that when they went away, the symptoms went away, and when they came back the symptoms returned. Eight of the 10 families eventually moved away from their homes because they were so troubled by the symptoms.
Dr. Michael A. Nissenbaum, a radiologist at the Northern Maine Medical Center, conducted interviews with 15 people living near the industrial wind energy facility in Mars Hill, Maine. The purpose of the interviews was to investigate and record the health effects on those living within 3,500 feet of industrial-scale turbines.
On March 25, 2009, Nissenbaum presented his preliminary findings before the Maine Medical Association. The data, which he characterized as alarming, suggest the residents are experiencing serious health problems related to shadow flicker and noise emissions from the turbines near their homes. The onset of symptoms, including sleep disturbance, headaches, dizziness, weight changes, possible increases in blood pressure, as well as increased prescription medication use, all appeared to coincide with the time when the turbines were first turned on (December 2006). On September 17, 2009, Nissenbaum testified to the Maine Board of Environmental Protection on behalf of an appeal of the approval of the Record Hill wind energy project in Roxbury. In his affidavit, Nissenbaum states that he is “preparing a formal study, which includes a control group, on the subject for publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal. The draft will be sent to the New England Journal of Medicine”. At its annual meeting, September 11-13, 2009, the Maine Medical Association approved a resolution “to bring to the public’s attention the scientific information of known medical consequences of wind development” and to “encourage performance of studies on health effects of wind turbine generation by independent qualified researchers at qualified research institutions”. The same resolution was adopted by the Maine Osteopathic Association board of directors on Sept. 25.
On April 22, 2009, Dr. Robert McMurtry, former Dean of Medicine of the University of Western Ontario, released a survey conducted on the various wind facilities in Ontario. Of the 76 respondents in the community-based self-survey, 53 people living near different wind power plants reported that industrial wind turbines were having a significant negative impact on their lives. The adverse effects ranged from headaches and sleep disturbance to tinnitus (ringing in the ear) and depression.
In Japan, more than 70 people living near wind turbines have reported ill health. They include residents in Ikata, Ehime Prefecture; Higashi-Izu, Shizuoka Prefecture; Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture; and Minami-Awaji, Hyogo Prefecture. The Japanese Ministry of the Environment is now studying international data showing a potential link between wind turbines and health problems in surrounding areas to determine a plan of action for Japan. It has also started measuring low-frequency sounds around some wind farms.
Low-frequency noise is known to cause “extreme distress to a number of people who are sensitive to its effects”. Low-frequency noise disturbance has been documented as an effect from wind turbines.
Wind Turbine Syndrome, Vibroacoustic Disease, or Sleep Deprivation
Wind Turbine Syndrome is not the same as Vibroacoustic Disease. The proposed mechanisms are different, and the noise amplitudes may be different as well.
Wind Turbine Syndrome, according to Pierpont, is essentially low-frequency noise or vibration tricking the body’s balance system into thinking it’s moving. The process is mediated by the vestibular system, i.e., by disturbed sensory input to eyes, inner ears, and stretch and pressure receptors in a variety of body locations. These feed back neurologically to a person’s sense of position and motion in space, which is in turn connected in multiple ways to brain functions as disparate as spatial memory and anxiety. New discoveries about the high sensitivity of the vestibular system of the human inner ear to noise/vibration were published in Neuroscience Letters in 2008.
Vibroacoustic Disease, on the other hand, is hypothesized to be caused by direct tissue damage to a variety of organs, creating thickening of supporting structures, particularly in the heart and lungs, and other pathological changes. The suspected agent is high-amplitude low-frequency noise.
British sleep expert Christopher Hanning has noted that sleep deprivation, including arousal from deep to more shallow sleep, can cause many of the symptoms of Wind Turbine Syndrome and that the evidence that wind turbine noise emissions cause sleep disturbance and ill health is in no doubt. Dutch researchers reported in Nature Neuroscience that mild sleep disruption, rousing the sleeper from deep to shallow sleep, negatively affected memory retention.
Scientific and clinical acceptance
Although Pierpont’s book includes reviews and notices from several practitioners in related fields, there are as yet no reports in the peer-reviewed clinical literature linking wind turbines to these or any other symptoms.
Residents of the U.K. presented their experience of ill health living near an wind energy facility at the juried Second International Wind Turbine Noise Conference in Lyon, France, September 20-21, 2007, organized by the Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE)/Europe. Researchers in Portugal reported at the same conference that the conditions for Vibroacoustic Disease, in which low-frequency vibrations affect heart and lung tissues, were found in homes near wind energy facilities.
A report by the Minnesota Department of Health found that “Wind turbines generate a broad spectrum of low-intensity noise” and:
- “Sleeplessness and headache are the most common health complaints and are highly correlated (but not perfectly correlated) with annoyance complaints. Complaints are more likely when turbines are visible or when shadow flicker occurs. Most available evidence suggests that reported health effects are related to audible low frequency noise. Complaints appear to rise with increasing outside noise levels above 35 dB(A). It has been hypothesized that direct activation of the vestibular and autonomic nervous system may be responsible for less common complaints, but evidence is scant.
A paper by the U.S. National Research Council noted, ‘Low-frequency vibration and its effects on humans are not well understood. Sensitivity to such vibration resulting from wind-turbine noise is highly variable among humans. Although there are opposing views on the subject, it has recently been stated (Pierpont 2006) that “some people feel disturbing amounts of vibration or pulsation from wind turbines, and can count in their bodies, especially their chests, the beats of the blades passing the towers, even when they can’t hear or see them.” More needs to be understood regarding the effects of low-frequency noise on humans.’
A European Union–sponsored report from The Netherlands found that “the sound of wind turbines causes relatively much annoyance. The sound is perceived at relatively low levels and is thought to be more annoying than equally loud air or road traffic”. Although only 9% of the respondents in the Dutch study lived with an estimated outdoor noise level of more than 45 dBA, there was a significant level of sleep disturbance and annoyance, and the authors noted that “annoyance with wind turbine noise was associated with psychological distress, stress, difficulties to fall asleep and sleep interruption”, which they described as a health effect.
Similarly, an earlier Swedish study stated, “Annoyance is an adverse heath effect.”
A review by the Chatham-Kent (Ontario) Public Health Unit concluded that “opposition to wind farms on the basis of potential adverse health consequences is not justified by the evidence.” The review noted, “A wind turbine setback at 750 meters [2,461 feet] emits noise comparable to a kitchen refrigerator [50 dB].” A critique by Wayne Gulden found that only one of the peer-reviewed sources cited in the Chatham-Kent review actually addressed the issue and that it did not support a firm conclusion.
The Japanese Environment Ministry will begin a “major study into the influence of sounds of wind turbines on people’s health” in April 2010, because “people living near wind power facilities are increasingly complaining of health problems”. They plan a four-year examination of all 1,517 wind turbines in the country.
An international symposium on adverse health effects from wind turbines was held in Picton, Ontario, October 29-31, 2010.
The wind industry insists that no problem exists or that it is so rare as to be of little consequence. The Canadian Wind Energy Association, for example, cites several papers, including two in peer-reviewed journals, one by an acoustician who consults for the wind power industry and the other a general comparison by two economists of existing electricity generation technologies, finding “no evidence linking wind turbines to human health concerns”. According to an analysis of those papers by the advocacy group Wind Concerns Ontario, the articles do not in fact “conclude that there is no evidence that wind turbines have an adverse impact on human health”. The 2008 European Union–sponsored report from The Netherlands found that “the sound of wind turbines causes relatively much annoyance. The sound is perceived at relatively low levels and is thought to be more annoying than equally loud air or road traffic”.
In the United States, George Kamperman, INCE Board Certified noise control engineer, and Rick James, INCE Full Member, have documented significantly increased levels and the unique character of noise from industrial-sized wind turbines. To ensure the World Health Organization recommendation of less than 30 dB(A) inside a bedroom and that low-frequency noise (as measured in dB(C)) should not be 20 dB above the dB(A) level, they recommend that large wind turbines be sited at least 2 kilometers from homes. Similarly, the U.K. Noise Association and the French Academy of Medicine recommend a distance of 1 mile or 1.5 kilometers, respectively.
In Ontario, Canada, to ensure the Ministry of Environment’s noise guidelines limiting the level 30 meters outside a dwelling or campsite to 40 db(A), proposed regulations set a minimum distance of 550 meters (1,804 feet) for a group of 1 to 5 relatively quiet (102 dB(A)) turbines within a 3-kilometer (1.86-mile) radius, rising to 1,500 meters (4,921 feet) for a group of 11 to 25 noisier (106-107 db(A)) turbines. Larger facilities and noisier turbines would require a noise study. In December 2008, Prince Edward County, on the shores of Lake Ontario, passed a resolution calling for provincial and federal studies of low-frequency noise and electric disturbances from wind turbines with the aim of creating adequate siting guidelines to protect human health. The resolution was adopted by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities in October 2009.
On December 16, 2009, the Parliament of New South Wales, Australia, issued the final report of their “Inquiry into Wind Farms”, concluding: “Recommendations to address the issues raised during the Inquiry include implementing a minimum setback of two kilometres.”
- ^ Howe Gastmeier Chapnik Limited (February 15, 2007). “Wind Turbines and Sound : Review And Best Practice Guidelines”.
- ^ British Wind Energy Association. “Noise from Wind Turbines – The Facts”.
- ^ National Wind Watch. “Noise & Health Effects of Large Wind Turbines”.
- ^ Lynds, Jen (August 12, 2009). Bangor Daily News. “Mars Hill windmills prompt civil lawsuit”.
- ^ CBC News (August 12, 2009). “New wind turbine rules not enough for some”.
- ^ a b c Harry, Amanda (February 2007). “Wind Turbines, Noise and Health”.
- ^ a b c d Pierpont, Nina (2009). Wind Turbine Syndrome. Santa Fe, NM: K-Selected Books.
- ^ a b Nissenbaum, Michael (March 2009). “Mars Hill Wind Turbine Project Health Effects – Preliminary Findings”.
- ^ a b McMurtry, Robert (April 22, 2009). “Deputation to the Municipality of Prince Edward County”.
- ^ a b “Community-based health survey: adverse health effects and wind turbine complaints, March/April 2009”.
- ^ Canadian Press (April 23, 2009). CBC News. “Formal study needed into health effects of wind turbines, doctor says”.
- ^ a b Takeda, Tsuyoshi (February 6, 2009). Asahi Shimbun. “Something in the Wind as Mystery Illnesses Rise”.
- ^ a b Hanning, Christopher (June 2009). “Sleep disturbance and wind turbine noise”.
- ^ a b Nissenbaum, Michael (September 17, 2009). “Affidavit of Michael A. Nissenbaum, M.D. In Re: Record Hill Wind Project, Roxbury, Oxford County, Maine”.
- ^ Maine Medical Association (September 11-13, 2009). “Resolution RE: Wind Energy and Public Health” (p. 12).
- ^ Leventhall, Geoff. “A Review of Published Research on Low Frequency Noise and Its Effects”.
- ^ UK Noise Association. “Briefing Sheet: Low Frequency Noise”.
- ^ Phipps, Robyn (March 2007). “Evidence of Dr Robyn Phipps, in the Matter of Moturimu Wind Farm Application”
- ^ Casella, S. (2001). “Low Frequency Noise Update”. DEFRA Noise Programme, Department of the Environment, Northern Ireland Scottish Executive National Assembly for Wales: 1-11.
- ^ Van Den Berg, G. P. (2004). “Do Wind Turbines Produce Significant Low Frequency Sound Levels?” 11th International Meeting on Low Frequency Noise and Vibration and Its Control, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
- ^ Jakobsen, J. (2005). “Infrasound Emission from Wind Turbines”. Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 24(3): 145-155.
- ^ van den Berg, G. P. (2005). “The Beat Is Getting Stronger: the Effect of Atmospheric Stability on Low Frequency Modulated Sound of Wind Turbines”. Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 24(1): 1-24.
- ^ Todd, Neil; et al. (October 17, 2008). “Vibration Sensitivity of the Vestibular System of the Human Inner Ear”. Neuroscience Letters 2008;444:36-41.
- ^ Castelo Branco, Nuno; and Alves-Pereira, Mariana (2004). “Vibroacoustic Disease”. Noise & Health 2004;6:3-20.
- ^ Van Der Werf, Ysbrand; et al. (January 18, 2009). “Sleep benefits subsequent hippocampal functioning”. Nature Neuroscience 2009;12:122-123.
- ^ a b Wind Turbine Noise 2007, September 20-21, 2007, Lyon, France.
- ^ Davis, Julian; and Davis, Jane (September 2007). “Living with Amplitude Modulation, Lower Frequency Emissions and Sleep Deprivation”.
- ^ Alves-Pereira, Mariana; and Castelo Branco, Nuno (September 2007). “In-Home Wind Turbine Noise Is Conducive to Vibroacoustic Disease”.
- ^ Environmental Health Division, Minnesota Department of Health (May 22, 2009). “Public Health Impacts of Wind Turbines”
- ^ Pierpont, Nina (March 7, 2006). ‘Wind Turbine Syndrome. Testimony before the New York State Legislature Energy Committee’.
- ^ Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects, National Research Council (2007). Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects, p. 158-9.
- ^ a b c Frits van den Berg, Eja Pedersen, Jelte Bouma, and Roel Bakker, “Visual and acoustic impact of wind turbine farms on residents”, University of Groningen, June 3, 2008.
- ^ Pedersen and Persson Waye (2007) “Wind turbine noise, annoyance and self-reported health and wellbeing in different living environments”, Occupational and Environmental Medicine 64 (7): 480-486.
- ^ a b Chatham-Kent Public Health Unit (June 2008) “The Health Impact of Wind Turbines: A Review of the Current White, Grey, and Published Literature”.
- ^ Gulden, Wayne (April 2009). “Examination of ‘The Health Impact of Wind Turbines'”.
- ^ Yomiuri Shimbun (November 29, 2009). “Govt to study effects of wind farms on health”.
- ^ Proceedings – First International Symposium: The Global Wind Industry and Adverse Health Effects: Loss Of Social Justice?.
- ^ Canadian Wind Energy Association (June 10, 2008). “Scientists conclude that there is no evidence that wind turbines have an adverse impact on human health”
- ^ Canadian Wind Energy Association and American Wind Energy Association (December 2009). “Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review”.
- ^ Wind Concerns Ontario (May 22, 2009). “Deconstructing CanWEA Health ‘Research'”.
- ^ World Health Organization (1999). “Guidelines for Community Noise”.
- ^ Kamperman, George; and James, Rick (July 2008). “Simple Guidelines for Siting Wind Turbines to Prevent Health Risks”.
- ^ Noise Association, U.K. (July 2006). “New Research: Wind Farms Are Causing Noise Problems”.
- ^ Chouard, Claude-Henri, Académie Nationale de Médicine (March 14, 2006). “Le retentissement du fonctionnement des éoliennes sur la santé de l’homme” (Repercussions of wind turbine operations on human health).
- ^ Ministry of the Environment, Ontario (October 2008) “Noise Guidelines for Wind Farms”
- ^ Ministry of the Environment, Ontario (June 9, 2009). “Wind Turbines – Proposed Requirements and Setbacks”
- ^ Wind Concerns Ontario (October 7, 2009). “Federation of Canadian Municipalities Calls for Measures”.
- ^ General Purpose Standing Committee No. 5, Parliament of New South Wales (December 16, 2009).“Final Report, Rural Wind Farms”.
- Sheehan, Yvonne (Rockchapel, Co. Cork, Ireland). “Daily Diary, January 2008”.
- Sheehan, Yvonne (Rockchapel, Co. Cork, Ireland). “Daily Diary, 2008, Part 2”.
- Mair, Gail. “Italian Windfarm Diary”.
- Stein, Fay. “Wind Towers in Telocaset, Oregon”.
- Meyer, Gerry. “Brownsville (Wisc.) Diary of Wind Turbine Noise”.
- “My Next Door Neighbour is a Wind Turbine” (Chatham-Kent, Ont.).
- Burkhardt, Gwen (June 6, 2005). Western Mail. “Wind farm illness”.
- Meyer, Gerry. “Be Concerned About Health Effects from Wind Turbine Effects”.
- Wirtz, Ann (Oakfield, Wisc.). “The swoosh, swoosh feel along with the pressure makes me feel nauseous”.
- Bloomstein, Phil (Freedom, Maine) “Living Next To a Wind Turbine”.
- d’Entremont, Daniel (Pubnico Point, Nova Scotia). Letter to Calumet County.
- Taylor, Rene (Ellsworth, Ill.). “Testimony to Town of Union (Wisc.) Planning Commission”.
- Todd, Wendy (Mars Hill, Me.). “Letter from Mars Hill”.
- “Life with industrial wind turbines in Wisconsin, part 5”. Transcript: “Interview with Gerry Meyer, Byron, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin”.
- Better Plan, Wisconsin. “Life with a wind turbine 1300 feet away – the Wirtz family”.
- Amaranth Wind Turbines, Noise and Health: Barbara Ashbee Interview.
- Helen Fraser Interview – Melancthon I, Shelburne, Ont..
- Ron Williams, Cumbria, and Jane Davis, Lincolnshire, interviews.
- WERU-FM, Blue Hill, Maine: Weekend Voices, Dec. 19, 2009. Discussion with residents of Vinalhaven, Maine.
- Milner, Catherine (25 January 2004), “Wind farms ‘make people sick who live up to a mile away”, Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1452529/Wind-farms-make-people-sick-who-live-up-to-a-mile-away.html
- Keller, James (13 May 2006), “Family says turbine vibrations made them ill enough to move”, Hamilton Spectator, http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/hamiltonspectator/access/1036112091.html?FMT=ABS
- Kriz, Kathy (12 October 2006), “Could Wind Turbines Be A Health Hazard?”, WHAM-TV, http://www.13wham.com/news/local/story/Could-Wind-Turbines-Be-A-Health-Hazard/XvZanNzd1EG33Jknb0cNvA.cspx
- “Quietly sounding alarm; Forced from home after noise from wind farm turbines made family sick, d’Entremont telling others his story”, Chronicle Herald, 27 August 2007, http://www.wind-watch.org/news/2007/08/27/quietly-sounding-alarm-forced-from-home-after-noise-from-wind-farm-turbines-made-family-sick-d%E2%80%99entremont-telling-others-his-story/print/
- St. James, Janet (29 July 2008), “Neighbors claim wind turbine makes them ill”, WFAA-TV, http://www.wfaa.com/sharedcontent/dws/wfaa/jstjames/stories/wfaa080728_lj_windturbines.fbc5e25.html
- “Wind turbines cause health problems, residents say”, CTV, 28 September 2008, http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080928/windmill_safety_080928
- Keen, Judy (3 November 2008), “Neighbors at odds over noise from wind turbines”, USA Today, http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/energy/2008-11-03-windturbines_N.htm
- Tilkin, Dan (14 November 2008), “Wind farms: Is there a hidden health hazard?”, KATU-TV, http://www.katu.com/news/34469989.html
- Sudekum Fisher, Maria (3 February 2009), “NW Missouri man sues Deere, wind energy company”, Associated Press, http://www.wind-watch.org/news/2009/02/03/nw-missouri-man-sues-deere-wind-energy-company/print/
- Takeda, Tsuyoshi (6 February 2009), “Something in the Wind as Mystery Illnesses Rise”, Asahi Shimbun, http://www.asahi.com/english/Herald-asahi/TKY200902060054.html
- Blaney Flietner, Maureen. Bobvila.com, Green Backlash: The Wind Turbine Controversy, http://www.bobvila.com/HowTo_Library/Green_Backlash_The_Wind_Turbine_Controversy-Green_Building-A3923.html
- Nelson, Bob (2 March 2009), “Wind farms: Interview of Malone and Johnsburg residents”, Morning Show, KFIX, http://www.wind-watch.org/news/2009/03/02/wind-farms-interview-of-malone-and-johnsburg-residents/
- Mills, Erin (8 March 2009), “Loud as the wind: Wind tower neighbors complain of noise fallout”, East Oregonian, http://www.eastoregonian.com/main.asp?SectionID=13&SubSectionID=48&ArticleID=89854
- Miller, Scott. A-News, CTV Globe Media, Wind Turbines Driving People From Their Homes, http://www.atv.ca/wingham/news_68031.aspx
- Tremonti, Anna Maria (14 April 2009), “Wind Turbines: Health”, The Current, CBC Radio One, http://podcast.cbc.ca/mp3/currentdonotusethis_20090414_14279.mp3
- “Wind turbines causing health problems, some Ont. residents say”, CBC News. April 14, 2009, http://www.cbc.ca/canada/toronto/story/2009/04/14/tech-090414-wind-turbines.html
- Buurma, Christine (21 April 2009), “Noise, Shadows Raise Hurdles For Wind Farms”, Wall Street Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/BT-CO-20090421-714497.html
- “Reports of wind farm health problems growing”, CTV Toronto, 22 April 2009, http://toronto.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20090422/wind_farms_090422/20090422/?hub=TorontoNewHome
- “Formal study needed into health effects of wind turbines, doctor says”, CBC News, 23 April 2009, http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2009/04/23/wind-medical.html
- Miller, Scott. A-News, CTV Globe Media, Daughter’s Earaches Blamed On Wind Farm, http://www.atv.ca/wingham/news_68176.aspx
- Epp, Peter (5 May 2009), Survey points to health woes arising from wind turbines, http://www.todaysfarmer.ca/
- Mayne, Paul (7 May 2009), “Is public’s health blowing in the wind?”, Western News, http://communications.uwo.ca/com/western_news/stories/is_public%E2%80%99s_health_blowing_in_the_wind?_20090507444272/
- Delaney, Joan (13 May 2009), “Wind turbines blamed for adverse health effects”, The Epoch Times, http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/16774/
- Alteri, Beth (15 May 2009), “Does wind turbine noise affect your sleep or health?”, WLBZ2, http://www.wlbz2.com/news/local/story.aspx?storyid=104717
- Hale, Caleb (23 May 2009), “Health can be a key issue when living near wind farm”, Southern Illinoisan, http://www.southernillinoisan.com/articles/2009/05/24/front_page/29001391.txt
- Hessling, Kate (4 June 2009), “Solutions sought for turbine noise”, Huron Daily Tribune, http://www.michigansthumb.com/articles/2009/06/04/news/local_news/doc4a27e0e267fc1252901181.txt
- Boles, Stephen (7 June 2009), “Wind Turbine Syndrome: Are wind farms hazardous to human health?”, Red, Green and Blue, http://redgreenandblue.org/2009/06/07/wind-turbine-syndrome-are-wind-farms-hazardous-to-human-health/
- Kart, Jeff (11 June 2009), “Wind turbine noise is rattling some residents in Michigan’s Thumb”, Bay City Times, http://www.mlive.com/news/bay-city/index.ssf/2009/06/wind_turbines_create_bad_buzz.html
- Walsh, Bill (19 June 2009), “Wind Farms Ruining Quality of Life?”, WNEM, http://www.wnem.com/video/19798049/index.html
- Hundertmark, Susan (24 June 2009), “St. Columban residents get informed on wind turbine health concerns”, Lucknow Sentinel, http://www.lucknowsentinel.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=1627512
- Yoshida, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Koichi (1 July 2009), “Wind power has its own environmental problems”, Daily Yomiuri, http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/20090701TDY04302.htm
- “Wind turbine noise ‘forces’ couple out”, ABC News, 15 July 2009, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/07/15/2626545.htm
- Pagano, Margareta (2 August 2009), “Are wind farms a health risk? US scientist identifies ‘wind turbine syndrome”, The Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/green-living/are-wind-farms-a-health-risk-us-scientist-identifies-wind-turbine-syndrome-1766254.html
- Martin, Daniel (2 August 2009), “Living near a wind farm can cause heart disease, panic attacks and migraines”, Daily Mail, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1203770/Are-wind-farms-risk-health.html
- Stewart, Linda (3 August 2009), “Is it dangerous to live close to wind turbines?”, Belfast Telegraph, http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/environment/is-it-dangerous-to-live-close-to-wind-turbines-14441692.html
- Woodrow, Shane (6 August 2009), “Windfarm Research”, WIN TV, http://www.wintv.com.au/national/news/item/11942/
- Ravana, Anne (7 August 2009), “Discontent of Mars Hill Residents Leads to Lawsuit Against First Wind”, Maine Public Broadcasting Network, http://www.mpbn.net/Home/tabid/36/ctl/ViewItem/mid/3478/ItemId/8549/Default.aspx
- Baca, Nathan (11 August 2009), “Migraine, Wind Turbine Connection Still Being Examined”, KESQ, http://www.kesq.com/Global/story.asp?S=10887053&nav=9qrx
- Lynds, Jen (12 August 2009), “Mars Hill windmills prompt civil lawsuit”, Bangor Daily News, http://www.bangordailynews.com/detail/115622.html
- “Electricity nightmares”, Nine-MSN, 14 August 2009, //video.ninemsn.com.au/video.aspx?mkt=en-au&brand=ninemsn&tab=m164&mediaid=224784&from=39&vid=06F65387-45FD-47C5-B17E-A99C5BDF3C4A
- “Wind Victims Gagged and Silenced in Ontario”, Wind Concerns Ontario, 16 August 2009, http://windconcernsontario.wordpress.com/2009/08/16/wind-victims-gagged-and-silenced-in-ontario/
- “Pyrenees Shire questions wind farm noise”, ABC News, 18 August 2009, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/08/18/2659515.htm
- Wilson, Lauren (22 August 2009), “Farmers flee as turbines trigger despair”, The Australian, http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,25964195-5006785,00.html
- Wilson, Lauren (24 August 2009), “No relief for land owners affected by wind farms”, The Australian, http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/business/story/0,28124,25970616-5005200,00.html
- “Govt urged to probe wind farm illness claims”, ABC News, 28 August 2009, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/08/28/2669984.htm
- “Qld noise experts to test Waubra wind farm”, ABC News, 4 September 2009, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/09/04/2676715.htm
- Hall, Cheryl (4 September 2009), “Wind Farms causing head spins”, Stateline Victoria, ABC, http://www.abc.net.au/stateline/vic/content/2006/s2677052.htm
- Reading, Lyndal (7 September 2009), “Anger over wind turbine noise”, Weekly Times, http://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/article/2009/09/07/109051_national-news.html
- “Wind turbines still a problem for some”, Chatham Daily News, 22 September 2009, http://www.chathamdailynews.ca/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=1764307
- Brown, Judy (30 September 2009), “Wind turbines generate health, farming concerns”, Farm Country.
- Stevens, Kim (15 October 2009), “Health check at Waubra wind farm”, The Courier, http://www.thecourier.com.au/news/local/news/general/health-check-at-waubra-wind-farm/1650819.aspx
- Whittle, Julian (22 October 2009), “Living near turbines is ‘mental torture’, Carlisle inquiry told”, News & Star, http://www.newsandstar.co.uk/news/living_near_turbines_is_mental_torture_1_627020
- Vivian, Richard (12 November 2009), “Answers definitely not blowing in the wind”, Orangeville Banner, http://www.orangevillebanner.com/news/article/80490
- Vivian, Richard (16 November 2009), “No proven link exists between wind turbines, health problems”, Orangeville Banner, http://www.orangevillebanner.com/news/article/80648
- Vivian, Richard (19 November 2009), “MOE pledges ongoing research on turbines, health”, Orangeville Banner, http://www.orangevillebanner.com/orangeville/article/80932
- “Wind power health effects queried by municipal group”, CBC News, 18 November 2009, http://www.cbc.ca/canada/prince-edward-island/story/2009/11/18/pei-wind-health-municipalities-584.html
- Annis, Robert (19 November 2009), “Boone County looking into wind farm health fears”, Indianapolis Star, http://www.indystar.com/article/20091119/LOCAL02/911190372/1145/LOCAL02/Boone-County-looking-into-wind-farm-health-fears
- Crosby, Don (20 November 2009), “Bruce seeks wind turbine health study”, Owen Sound Sun Times, http://owensoundsuntimes.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=2184492
- Lam, Tina (24 November 2009), “Living by wind farms no breeze, some say”, Detroit Free Press, http://www.freep.com/article/20091124/NEWS05/911240369/1322/Living-by-wind-farms-no-breeze-some-say
- “Govt to study effects of wind farms on health”, Yomiuri Shimbun, 29 November 2009, http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/20091129TDY02309.htm
- Leake, Jonathan, and Byford, Harry (13 December 2009), “Officials cover up wind farm noise report”, Sunday Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/environment/article6954565.ece
- White, Leslie (24 December 2009), “Report critical of wind farms”, Weekly Times, http://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/article/2009/12/24/144511_national-news.html
- Braithwaite, Chris (30 December 2009), “Wind tower neighbor bought out for health reasons”, Chronicle, http://www.wind-watch.org/news/2009/12/31/wind-tower-neighbor-bought-out-for-health-reasons/print/
- Schliesmann, Paul (16 January 2010), “Wind turbines: Expert says people are suffering health problems from being too close to structures”, Whig-Standard, http://www.thewhig.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=2264037
- “Sickness claims prompt study of wind turbines”, Asahi Shimbun, 19 January 2010, http://www.asahi.com/english/Herald-asahi/TKY201001180410.html
- Squair, Sylvia (4 February 2010), Throwing Caution to the Wind, //www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5PXnwa-F1s
- Hall, Cheryl (19 February 2010), “Claims of wind farm illness”, Stateline Victoria, ABC News, http://www.abc.net.au/news/video/2010/02/19/2825235.htm
- Bryce, Robert (1 March 2010), “The Brewing Tempest Over Wind Power”, Wall Street Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704240004575085631551312608.html
- “Govt to investigate wind farm complaints”, ABC News, 4 March 2010, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2010/03/04/2836014.htm
- “Wind Farms Causing Health Problems?”, Fox Business, 4 March 2010, //video.foxbusiness.com/v/4069971/wind-farms-causing-health-problems/?playlist_id=87053
- Gray, Louise (6 March 2010), “Noise complaints about one in six wind farms”, Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/7377641/Noise-complaints-about-one-in-six-wind-farms.html
- Martin, Steve (16 March 2010), “Wind Turbine Syndrome with Dr Nina Pierpont”, Ballarat Mornings, ABC Victoria, http://blogs.abc.net.au/victoria/2010/03/wind-turbine-syndrome-with-dr-nina-pierpont.html?site=ballarat&program=ballarat_mornings
- Snyder, Paul (1 April 2010), “Landowners sue Invenergy over Forward Wind Energy Center”, Daily Reporter, http://dailyreporter.com/blog/2010/04/01/landowners-sue-invenergy-over-forward-wind-energy-center/
- Spolar, Matthew (12 April 2010), “Effects of turbines in question”, Concord Monitor, http://www.concordmonitor.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100412/FRONTPAGE/4120301
- Kottke, Colleen (18 April 2010), “Oakfield couple files PSC complaint over wind farm”, Fond du Lac Reporter, http://www.fdlreporter.com/article/20100418/FON0101/4180476/1985/FONbusiness
- Roper, Matt (19 April 2010), “Couple driven out by noisy wind turbines sue for £380,000”, Daily Mirror, http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2010/04/19/wind-harm-115875-22195868/
- “Lincolnshire windfarm rejected to help autistic boys”, BBC News, 27 April 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/uk_news/england/humber/8646326.stm
- Oike, Yuki Tsuruta (30 April 2010), Japanese conference against big wind, http://www.wind-watch.org/news/2010/05/17/japanese-conference-against-big-wind/print/
- Mulholland, Jessica (1 March 2010), “Are Wind Farms a Health Risk?”, Governing, http://www.governing.com/topics/energy-env/Are-Wind-Farms-a.html
- Snyder, Paul (6 May 2010), “Wind farm property sells at sheriff’s sale”, Daily Reporter, http://dailyreporter.com/blog/2010/05/06/wind-farm-property-sells-at-sheriffs-sale/
- O’Gorman, Josh (7 May 2010), “Hospital hosts wind debate”, Rutland Herald, http://www.rutlandherald.com/article/20100507/NEWS01/5070355/1002/NEWS01
- Craddock, Chelsea (16 May 2010), “Hospital shows off balance center”, Watertown Daily Times, http://www.watertowndailytimes.com/article/20100516/NEWS03/305169947
- De Long, L. Sam (26 May 2010), “Another health problem caused by turbines”, Watertown Daily Times [letter], http://www.watertowndailytimes.com/article/20100526/OPINION02/305269984
- AAP (27 May 2010), “Sick residents claim wind farm ‘torture'”, Herald Sun, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/breaking-news/sick-residents-claim-wind-farm-torture/story-e6frf7jx-1225872221814
- “Homeowners File Lawsuit Over Wind Turbines”, WNEM, 28 May 2010, http://www.wnem.com/video/23706126/
- Weaver, Alex (29 May 2010), “An ill wind blows in”, The Standard, http://www.standard.net.au/news/local/news/general/an-ill-wind-blows-in/1843453.aspx?storypage=0
- McConville, Christine (2 June 2010), “Falmouth wind-turbine noise has local residents whirling”, Boston Herald, http://www.bostonherald.com/business/technology/general/view/20100602falmouth_wind-turbine_noise_has_local_residents_whirling/
- Simpson, Barbara (2 June 2010), “A quiet room of their own: Residents impacted by wind turbines sleep in Delhi”, Delhi News-Record, http://delhinewsrecord.ca/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=2604876
- Sellars, Paul (3 June 2010), “Wind turbine illness claims”, Weekly Times, http://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/article/2010/06/03/194031_national-news.html
- Lazzaro, Kellie (5 July 2010), “Residents reject wind farm health findings”, ABC News, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2010/07/05/2944584.htm
- “Family First Senator seeks enquiry into health effects of wind farms”, Australia.to News, 27 July 2010, http://australia.to/2010/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4086:family-first-senator-seeks-enquiry-into-health-effects-of-wind-farms
- Hugus, Elise R. (27 July 2010), “Bylaw in the Works to Regulate Turbine Noise”, The Enterprise, http://www.capenews.net/communities/falmouth/news/463
- Learn, Scott (21 October 2010), “Oregon Public Health office decides it’s time to study health effects of wind turbines”, The Oregonian, http://www.oregonlive.com/environment/index.ssf/2010/10/oregon_public_health_office_de.html
- Hessling, Kate (23 October 2010), “Dates set for wind lawsuit”, Huron Daily Tribune, http://www.michigansthumb.com/articles/2010/10/23/news/local_news/doc4cc27b56afe47785068939.txt
- Conroy, Rick (5 November 2010), “Unity of knowledge (Leading experts pool their most recent understanding of the harm of industrial wind turbines on human health)”, Wellington Times, http://wellingtontimes.ca/unity-of-knowledge/
- Afflick, Rachel (10 November 2010), “Doctor calls for halt to Leonards Hill wind farm development”, The Advocate, http://www.hepburnadvocate.com.au/news/local/news/general/doctor-calls-for-halt-to-leonards-hill-wind-farm-development/1992094.aspx
- Gullifer, Brendan (12 November 2010), “Wind turbines force Glenbrae family out of home”, The Courier, http://www.thecourier.com.au/news/local/news/general/wind-turbines-force-glenbrae-family-out-of-home/1995428.aspx
- Dick, Alan (29 November 2010), “Wind farm critics slam ‘all in the mind’ games”, The Land, http://theland.farmonline.com.au/news/state/agribusiness-and-general/general/wind-farm-critics-slam-all-in-the-mind-games/2009213.aspx
- Gullifer, Brendan (2 December 2010), “Wind-farm health fears grow”, The Courier, http://www.thecourier.com.au/news/local/news/general/windfarm-health-fears-grow/2014133.aspx
- Crosby, Don (3 December 2010), “Lynn to outline wind study”, The Sun Times.
- Sher, Jonathan (13 December 2010), “MOH targets ill effects of turbines”, The London Free Press, http://www.lfpress.com/news/london/2010/12/12/16524086.html
- Ladgrove, Petria (21 December 2010), “Are wind turbines bad for your health?”, ABC North and West SA, http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2010/12/17/3095855.htm
- “Waubra resident on 24-hour check”, The Courier, 1 January 2011, http://www.thecourier.com.au/news/local/news/general/waubra-resident-on-24hour-check/2037606.aspx
- Rosenfeld, David (6 January 2011), “Noise Complaints Draw Opposition to Wind Farms”, Miller-McCune, http://www.miller-mccune.com/health/noise-complaints-draw-opposition-to-wind-farms-26673/
- “Waubra resident tells court of wind farm “hell””, The Courier, 18 January 2011, http://www.thecourier.com.au/news/local/news/general/waubra-resident-tells-court-of-wind-farm-hell/2049825.aspx
- Fitzpatrick, Fitzpatrick (22 January, 2011), “‘Noise from windfarm is affecting my health'”, Manchester Evening News, http://menmedia.co.uk/manchestereveningnews/news/s/1406002_noise_from_windfarm_is_affecting_my_health
- Patterson, Troy (25 January, 2011), “‘Stray voltage an ongoing issue in wind farm areas'”, Kincardine News, http://kincardinenews.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=2944342
This material is the work of the author(s) indicated. Any opinions expressed in it are not necessarily those of National Wind Watch.
The copyright of this material resides with the author(s). As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations. Send queries to query/wind-watch.org.
|Wind Watch relies entirely
on User Funding