Go to multi-category search »


Documents Home
View PDF, DOC, PPT, and XLS files on line

Add NWW documents to your site (click here)

Sign up for daily updates

Keep Wind Watch online and independent!

Donate $10

Donate $5

News Watch

Selected Documents

Research Links


Press Releases


Publications & Products

Photos & Graphics


Allied Groups

Environmental Noise: Better Measures and Reporting Needed  

Author:  | Noise, Regulations

ABSTRACT: In measuring the environmental noise level for such purposes as compliance monitoring and nuisance noise assess- ment, the most often used statistic is the A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL), often reported as a percent ex- ceedance level (e.g. L10 or L90) averaged over a time interval such as 10 minutes or 24 hours. This statistic can not be relied upon in situations where noise has ‘special audible characteristics,’ such as modulation or tonality, since increases in the sound pressure level (SPL) of the loudest n% of sound will be ignored. Furthermore, the use of A- weighting underestimates the lower-frequency sounds, which have recently been shown to be perceived by humans through alternative mechanisms, therefore different measures are required. The analysis of large amounts of data for compliance monitoring can be a time-consuming process. Errors can occur due to inappropriate analysis methods or flawed understanding of the noise under investigation. This paper reports on: (1) some of the current issues with us- ing the A-weighting and exceedance statistics as measures of loudness; (2) the development of several alternative measures to analyse environmental sounds from various sources that exhibit ‘special audible characteristics’ (includ- ing wind farms and impulsive noise); (3) the requirements of automated, standardised methods of data reporting, analysis and assessment for large and complex data sets and (4) the development of a new sound measurement tool that implements the proposed analysis techniques while extending the acoustic spectrum down to less than 1 Hz: the Spectro-Acoustic Meter (SAM).

H.H.C. Bakker
School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

B.I. Rapley
Atkinson and Rapley Consulting, Palmerston North, New Zealand

R. Elliott
Elliott Sound Products, Thornleigh, Australia

Presented at the annual convention of the Australian Acoustics Society, 2nd-4th November 2011, Queensland, Australia

Download original document: “Environmental Noise: Better Measures and Reporting Needed

This material is the work of the author(s) indicated. Any opinions expressed in it are not necessarily those of National Wind Watch.

The copyright of this material resides with the author(s). As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations. Queries e-mail.

Wind Watch relies entirely
on User Funding
Donate $5 PayPal Donate


Get the Facts Follow Wind Watch on Twitter

Wind Watch on Facebook


© National Wind Watch, Inc.
Use of copyrighted material adheres to Fair Use.
"Wind Watch" is a registered trademark.