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Resource Documents: Poland (4 items)


Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.

Date added:  May 16, 2016
Health, Noise, Poland, SitingPrint storyE-mail story

Position of the National Institute of Public Health–National Institute of Hygiene on wind farms

Author:  National Institute of Hygiene, National Institute of Public Health, Poland

The National Institute of Public Health–National Institute of Hygiene is of the opinion that wind farms situated too close to buildings intended for permanent human occupation may have a negative impact on the comfort of living and health of the people living in their proximity.

The human health risk factors that the Institute has taken into consideration in its position are as follows:

In the Institute’s opinion, the laws and regulations currently in force in Poland (regarding risk factors which, in practice, include only the noise level) are not only inadequate to facilities such as wind turbines, but they also fail to guarantee a sufficient degree of public health protection. The methodology currently used for environmental impact assessment of wind farms (including human health) is not applicable to wind speeds exceeding 5 m/s. In addition, it does not take into account the full frequency range (in particular, low frequency) and the nuisance level.

In the Institute’s view , owing to the current lack of a comprehensive regulatory framework governing the assessment of health risks related to the operation of wind farms in Poland, an urgent need arises to develop and implement a comprehensive methodology according to which the sufficient distance of wind turbines from human habitation would be determined. The methodology should take into account all the above-mentioned potential risk factors, and its result should reflect the least favourable situation. In addition to landform and land use characteristics, the methodology should also take into consideration the category, type, height and number of turbines at a specific farm, and the location of other wind farms in the vicinity. Similar legislative arrangements aimed to provide for multi-criteria assessment, based on complex numerical algorithms, are currently used in the world.

The Institute is aware of the fact that owing to the diversity of factors and the complicated nature of such an algorithm, its development within a short time period may prove very difficult. Therefore, what seems to be an effective and simpler solution is the prescription of a minimum distance of wind turbines from buildings intended for permanent human occupation. Distance criteria are also a common standard-setting arrangement. Having regard to the above, until a comprehensive methodology is developed for the assessment of the impact of industrial wind farms on human health, the Institute recommends 2 km as the minimum distance of wind farms from buildings. The recommended value results from a critical assessment of research results published in reviewed scientific periodicals with regard to all potential risk factors for average distance usually specified within the fo0llowing limits:

In its opinions, the Institute has also taken into account the recommended distances of wind farms from buildings, as specified by experts, scientists, as well as central and local government bodies around the world (usually 1.0-5.0 km).

Download Reference List.

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Date added:  May 15, 2014
Health, Noise, PolandPrint storyE-mail story

Evaluation of annoyance from the wind turbine noise – A pilot study

Author:  Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; et al.


Objectives. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of and annoyance due to the noise from wind turbines in populated areas of Poland.

Material and Methods. The study group comprised 156 subjects. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire developed to enable evaluation of their living conditions, including prevalence of annoyance due to the noise from wind turbines and the self-assessment of physical health and well-being. In addition, current mental health status of the respondents was assessed using Goldberg General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. For areas where the respondents lived, A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated as the sum of the contributions from the wind power plants in the specific area.

Results. It has been shown that the wind turbine noise at the calculated A-weighted SPL of 30-48 dB was noticed outdoors by 60.3% of the respondents. This noise was perceived as annoying outdoors by 33.3% of the respondents, while indoors by 20.5% of them. The odds ratio of being annoyed outdoors by the wind turbine noise increased along with increasing SPLs (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.22–3.62). The subjects’ attitude to wind turbines in general and sensitivity to landscape littering was found to have significant impact on the perceived annoyance. About 63% of variance in outdoors annoyance assessment might be explained by the noise level, general attitude to wind turbines and sensitivity to landscape littering.

Conclusions. Before firm conclusions can be drawn further studies are needed, including a larger number of respondents with different living environments (i.e., dissimilar terrain, different urbanization and road traffic intensity).

Małgorzata Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska
Adam Dudarewicz
Kamil Zaborowski
Małgorzata Zamojska-Daniszewska

Department of Physical Hazards
Małgorzata Waszkowska
Department of Occupational Psychology
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland

International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
May 2014
doi: 10.2478/s13382-014-0252-1

Download original document: “Evaluation of annoyance from the wind turbine noise – A pilot study

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Real-time wind production — various regions

Author:  National Wind Watch

Notes: Please be patient as this page loads – it’s pulling in a lot of data from around the world.
This page makes extensive use of iframes, which may require you to allow them on your browser.
Any error messages are likely due to the originating pages, not to this page at Wind Watch.

Germany, Netherlands, U.K., Spain, Portugal, Italy, Poland: Current production of RWE Npower facilities

Australia: South-West Interconnected System: Current production and past 24 hours’ total load and generation

Denmark: Current production and imports/exports (kraftwærker = power plants; windmøller = wind turbiness; nettoudveksling = net exchange; elforbrug = electricity consumption)

Denmark: Current consumption, production, and prices

Nordpool: Current production, exchange, and price in the Nordic power system

Estonia: Current production, plus graphs (“diagrams”) of past 24 hours and 7 days of six 4-Energia wind energy facilities, also webcams (total capacities: Esivere 8 MW, Pakri 18.4 MW, Tooma I 24 MW, Virtsu I-III 15 MW, Viru-Nigula 24 MW, Mockiai 12 MW, Sudenai 14 MW)

France: Quarter-hour consumption and production

France: Quarter-hour production and installed capacities

Germany: Electricity generation and consumption – previous week and historical (stromverbrauch = electricity consumption)

Germany: Quarter-hour wind production in EnBW control area (Baden-Württemberg)

Great Britain: Last 24 hours of generation by fuel type, every 5 minutes

Great Britain: Current, weekly, monthly, yearly demand and production

Ireland: Daily quarter-hour wind generation< and system demand

Portugal: Real-time wind power generation and total power generation (wind is included under “special status

Spain: Real-time wind generation, with percentage of capacity and percentage of demand (may not work in all browsers)

Spain: Real-time generation from all sources (may not work in all browsers)

Alberta: Monthly wind power forecast vs. actual comparison reports

Ontario: Latest hour of generation

Ontario: Daily hourly generation (scroll to bottom of table for wind plant)

Ontario: Hourly generation and other power data

Northwestern USA: Previous week, real-time 5-minute wind generation, Bonneville Power Administration
BPA load and wind generation

California: Daily hourly production, CAISO [click here to download complete report (PDF) from previous day.]
CAISO: yesterday's renewables production

Arizona and New Mexico: Real-time 5-min production and load

Midwest ISO hourly wind production (compare to total load)

North Dakota: Previous week, Basin electric Power Cooperative
Basin Electric wind generation, previous week

New England fuel mix (ISO-NE)

Barnstable, Massachusetts: hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly production and consumption of a 100-kW turbine since June 1, 2011 (100% daily generation would be 2,400 kWh)

Falmouth, Massachusetts: hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly production and consumption of a 1.65-MW turbine since March 23, 2010 (100% daily generation would be 39,600 kWh)

Ipswich, Massachusetts: hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly production and consumption of a 1.6-MW turbine since May 18, 2011 (100% daily generation would be 38,400 kWh)

Scituate, Massachusetts: hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly production and consumption of a 1.5-MW turbine since March 30, 2012 (100% daily generation would be 36,000 kWh)

Mark Richey Woodworking, Newburyport, Massachusetts: hourly, daily, monthly production of a 600-kW turbine since June 2009 (100% daily generation would be 14,400 kWh)

University of Delaware, Newark: current power output (kW) of 2,000-kW turbine

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Date added:  July 16, 2007
Health, Noise, Poland, PortugalPrint storyE-mail story

Low frequency noise legislation

Author:  Alves-Pereira, Mariana; Motylewski, Jersy; Kotlicka, Elzbieta; and Castelo Branco, Nuno

Paper accepted for Inter-noise 2007, 28-31 August, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract: Legislation regarding low frequency noise (LFN, <500 Hz including infrasound), when existent, is highly deficient. Not only is it expressed in dBA, actually defeating the purpose of evaluating LFN, but no concrete measures are prescribed if excessive LFN is identified. The status quo notion that acoustical phenomena are only harmful when perceived by humans cannot be sustained given current scientific facts. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate just how inadequate legislation is regarding LFN control, and how ubiquitous LFN is in locations common to the general public. Methods. Noise assessments were conducted in homes, clubs, public transportation and common automobiles, in 1/3 octave bands and with a lower limiting frequency of 6.3 Hz, measured in dBLin. Overall average noise levels are reported in both dBA and dBLin. Results. Comparative frequency analysis among acoustic environments that possess the same dBA levels show that it is not scientifically valid to presume the existence of comparable acoustic environments merely based on a dBA level, i.e., equal dBA levels does not mean equal acoustic environments. Neither the dBA nor the dBLin parameter adequately reflect the presence of LFN components. Discussion. LFN is ubiquitous in modern society, and yet it is not adequately legislated. Noise-related studies do not take LFN in account and thus yield results that are deemed controversial, contradictory, and inconclusive. No effort is made to control LFN in the homes, nor in other locations of common use to the general public. The implications of ignoring LFN as an agent of disease for the public health is detrimental to us all as a human society, and a nightmare for future generations.

Download original document: “Low frequency noise legislation

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