Resource Documents: India (7 items)
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Author: Kumara, Honnavalli; et al.
Abstract: Wind turbines have been recognised as an alternative and clean-energy source with a low environmental impact. The selection of sites for wind-farm often creates serious conservation concerns on biodiversity. Wind turbines have become a serious threat to migratory birds as they collide with the turbine blades in some regions across the globe, while the impact on terrestrial mammals is relatively less explored. In this context, we assessed the responses of birds and mammals to the wind turbines in central Karnataka, India from January 2016 to May 2018 using carcass searches to quantify animal collisions (i.e., birds and bats), fixed radius point count for bird population parameters, and an occupancy framework for assessing the factor that determines the spatial occurrence of terrestrial mammals. The mean annual animal fatality rate per wind turbine was 0.26/year. Species richness, abundance, and unique species of birds were relatively higher in control sites over wind turbine sites. Species and functional compositions of birds in control sites were different from wind turbine sites, explaining the varied patterns of bird assemblages of different feeding guilds. Blackbuck, Chinkara, Golden Jackal, and Jungle Cat were less likely to occupy sites with a high number of wind turbines. The study indicates that certain bird and mammal species avoided wind turbine-dominated sites, affecting their distribution pattern. This is of concern to the management of the forested areas with wind turbines. We raised conservation issues and mitigating measures to overcome the negative effects of wind turbines on animals.
Honnavalli N. Kumara, S. Babu, G. Babu Rao, Santanu Mahato, Malyasri Bhattacharya, Nitin Venkatesh Ranga Rao, D. Tamiliniyan, Harif Parengal, D. Deepak, Athira Balakrishnan, Mahesh Bilaskar
Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Anaikatty, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu; Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Madhav Nagar, Manipal, Karnataka; Biopsychology Laboratory, Institution of Excellence, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka; Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun, Uttarakhand; Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu; National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka; Department of Environmental Sciences, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Scientific Reports volume 12, Article number: 1339 (2022). doi:10.1038/s41598-022-05159-1
Download original document: “Responses of birds and mammals to long-established wind farms in India”
Author: Kumar, Selvaraj Ramesh; et al.
[abstract] Wind power is renewable and helps reduce greenhouse gas emission from the energy sector; however, it also has undesirable impacts on the environment. Studies from Europe and the USA report negative impact of wind farms on wildlife, especially on birds. India, the fourth largest producer of wind energy and also a mega biodiverse country has little information on this issue. Here, we report bird collisions from two wind farms: one at Kutch, Gujarat in western India and another from Davangere, Karnataka in southern India. A total of 47 bird carcasses belonging to at least 11 species in a period of three years were reported from Kutch and seven carcasses of at least three species in a period of one year were recorded at Davengere wind farm. The estimated annual bird mortality rate for Kutch was 0.478 birds/turbine and for Davengere it was 0.466 birds/turbine.
Selvaraj Ramesh Kumar, Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai 400 001, India
V. Anoop, P. R. Arun, Rajah Jayapal and A. Mohamed Samsoor Ali, Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore, India
CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 116, NO. 9, 10 MAY 2019
Download original document: “Avian mortalities from two wind farms at Kutch, Gujarat and Davangere, Karnataka, India”
Author: Thaker, Maria; Zambre, Amod; Bhosale, Harshal; et al.
[abstract] Wind farms are a cleaner alternative to fossil fuels for mitigating the effects of climate change, but they also have complex ecological consequences. In the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India, we find that wind farms reduce the abundance and activity of predatory birds (for example, Buteo, Butastur and Elanus species), which consequently increases the density of lizards, Sarada superba. The cascading effects of wind turbines on lizards include changes in behaviour, physiology and morphology that reflect a combination of predator release and density-dependent competition. By adding an effective trophic level to the top of food webs, we find that wind farms have emerging impacts that are greatly underestimated. There is thus a strong need for an ecosystem-wide view when aligning green-energy goals with environment protection.
Maria Thaker, Amod Zambre, and Harshal Bhosale
Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru
Nature Ecology & Evolution. Published online November 5, 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41559-018-0707-z
Download original document: “Wind farms have cascading impacts on ecosystems across trophic levels”
Author: Namakkal Transport Carriers and Lego