[ posts only (not attachments) ]

ISSUES/LOCATIONS

View titles only
(by date)
List all documents, ordered…

By Title

By Author

View PDF, DOC, PPT, and XLS files on line
RSS

Add NWW documents to your site (click here)

Sign up for daily updates

Keep Wind Watch online and independent!

Donate $10

Donate $5

News Watch

Selected Documents

Research Links

Alerts

Press Releases

FAQs

Publications & Products

Photos & Graphics

Videos

Allied Groups

Resource Documents: Americas (4 items)

RSSAmericas

Unless indicated otherwise, documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are shared here to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate. • The copyrights reside with the sources indicated. As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations.


Date added:  April 15, 2021
Environment, Law, Oregon, WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Petition for Judicial Review, Summit Ridge Wind Farm

Author:  Friends of the Columbia Gorge; Oregon Wild; and Central Oregon Landwatch

If constructed and operated, the Facility would result in adverse impacts to wildlife species, including bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). In 2009 and/or 2010, raptor surveys detected numerous bald and golden eagles and nest sites within 1,000 to 10,000 feet of proposed wind turbine locations. …

This appeal challenges three agency Orders issued by ODOE [Oregon Department of Energy], on August 10, 2020; August 21, 2020; and September 10, 2020. …

In issuing the three challenged Orders, ODOE acted in violation of the Oregon Administrative Procedures Act and the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Act by erroneously interpreting one or more provisions of law; acting outside the range of discretion delegated to the agency by law; acting inconsistent with one or more agency rules, officially stated agency positions, and/or prior agency practices without explaining the inconsistencies; acting in violation of a statutory provision; and/or issuing agency orders not supported by substantial evidence in one or more of the following ways: [50(a)–(v)].

Pursuant to ORS 469.563, Petitioners request that this Court issue such restraining orders and/or such temporary and permanent injunctive relief as is necessary to secure compliance with applicable provisions of the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Act and its implementing regulations and/or with the terms and conditions of a site certificate.

Download original document: “Amended Petition for Judicial Review, Summit Ridge Wind Farm

Bookmark and Share


Date added:  April 10, 2021
Colorado, WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Behavioral patterns of bats at a wind turbine confirm seasonality of fatality risk

Author:  Goldenberg, Shifra; Cryan, Paul; Gorresen, Paulo; and Fingersh, Lee

Abstract: Bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America are predominantly comprised of migratory, tree‐dependent species, but it is unclear why these bats are at higher risk. Factors influencing bat susceptibility to wind turbines might be revealed by temporal patterns in their behaviors around these dynamic landscape structures. In northern temperate zones, fatalities occur mostly from July through October, but whether this reflects seasonally variable behaviors, passage of migrants, or some combination of factors remains unknown. In this study, we examined video imagery spanning one year in the state of Colorado in the United States, to characterize patterns of seasonal and nightly variability in bat behavior at a wind turbine. We detected bats on 177 of 306 nights representing approximately 3,800 hr of video and > 2,000 discrete bat events. We observed bats approaching the turbine throughout the night across all months during which bats were observed. Two distinct seasonal peaks of bat activity occurred in July and September, representing 30% and 42% increases in discrete bat events from the preceding months June and August, respectively. Bats exhibited behaviors around the turbine that increased in both diversity and duration in July and September. The peaks in bat events were reflected in chasing and turbine approach behaviors. Many of the bat events involved multiple approaches to the turbine, including when bats were displaced through the air by moving blades. The seasonal and nightly patterns we observed were consistent with the possibility that wind turbines invoke investigative behaviors in bats in late summer and autumn coincident with migration and that bats may return and fly close to wind turbines even after experiencing potentially disruptive stimuli like moving blades. Our results point to the need for a deeper understanding of the seasonality, drivers, and characteristics of bat movement across spatial scales.

Migratory tree bats, like this silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) seen roosting on a tree trunk during autumn, are among the most frequently found dead at wind turbines in North America during late summer and autumn.

Shifra Z. Goldenberg, Conservation Ecology Center, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA; Institute for Conservation Research, San Diego Zoo Global, Escondido, CA
Paul M. Cryan, US Geological Survey (USGS), Fort Collins, CO
Paulo Marcos Gorresen, University of Hawaii at Hilo, HI; US Geological Survey Pacific Island Ecosystems Science Center, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Lee Jay Fingersh, US Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Wind Technology Center, Boulder, CO

Ecology and Evolution, 18 March 2021
doi: 10.1002/ece3.7388

Download original document: “Behavioral patterns of bats at a wind turbine confirm seasonality of fatality risk

Bookmark and Share


Date added:  April 1, 2021
California, WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Relative energy production determines effect of repowering on wildlife mortality at wind energy facilities

Abstract

1. Reduction in wildlife mortality is often cited as a potential advantage to repowering wind facilities, that is, replacing smaller, lower capacity, closely spaced turbines, with larger, higher capacity ones, more widely spaced. Wildlife mortality rates, however, are affected by more than just size and spacing of turbines, varying with turbine operation, seasonal and daily weather and habitat, all of which can confound our ability to accurately measure the effect of repowering on wildlife mortality rates.

2. We investigated the effect of repowering on wildlife mortality rates in a study conducted near Palm Springs, CA. We controlled for confounding effects of weather and habitat by measuring turbine-caused wildlife mortality rates over a range of turbine sizes and spacing, all within the same time period, habitat and local weather conditions. We controlled for differences in turbine operation by standardizing mortality rate per unit energy produced.

3. We found that avian and bat mortality rate was constant per unit of energy produced, across all sizes and spacings of turbines.

4. Synthesis and applications. In the context of repowering a wind facility, our results suggest that the relative amount of energy produced, rather than simply the size, spacing or nameplate capacity of the replacement turbines, determines the relative rate of mortality prior to and after repowering. Consequently, in a given location, newer turbines would be expected to be less harmful to wildlife only if they produced less energy than the older models they replace. The implications are far-reaching as 18% of US and 8% of world-wide wind power capacity will likely be considered for repowering within ~5 years.

Manuela Huso, Daniel Dalthorp, U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Corvallis, Oregon
Tara Conkling, Todd Katzner, U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Boise, Idaho
Heath Smith, Rogue Detection Teams, Rice, Washington
Amy Fesnock, Bureau of Land Management, California State Office, Sacramento, California

Journal of Applied Ecology. First published: 31 March 2021
doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13853

Download original document: “Relative energy production determines effect of repowering on wildlife mortality at wind energy facilities

Bookmark and Share


Date added:  March 2, 2021
Iowa, Siting, TechnologyPrint storyE-mail story

Some project specs in Iowa: area, infrastructure, foundations

Author:  RPM Access

Project Name

Top of Iowa Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation and Zilkha Renewable Energy

Owner

Entergy Corporation and Shell Wind Corporation

Contructor

M.A. Mortenson

Project Size

81 MW

Location

Approx 3 miles east of Town of Joice, Worth County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 5,900 acres of cropland consisting of 49 separate parcels of land [73 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

89 NEG Micon 900 kW turbines on 237 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

21.8 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 10.4 miles of overhead electric cable, 16 miles of gravel service roads, 2 permanent MET towers, one 161 kV substation, and one operation and maintenance building

Foundation (each)

7 ft deep, 42 feet wide; 188 cu yards of concrete; 25,713 lbs of reinforcing steel

Job Creation

Approx 95,300 person-hours (or 75 people for 8 months) during construction; 4-6 long-term jobs

Local County Taxes

Approx $13.4 Million over 25 years

Power Purchaser

Alliant Energy of Madison Wisconsin

Ground Breaking

April, 2001

Commercial Operation

November, 2001
Project Name

Top of Iowa II Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation

Owner

Iberdrola Renewable Energies

Constructor

Wanzek

Size

80 MW

Location

Approx 3 miles west of the Town of Kensett, Worth County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 6,089 acres of cropland consisting of 60 separate parcels of land [76 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

40 Gamesa G87 2MW turbines on 253 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

14.2 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 8.5 miles of gravel service roads, 1 permanent MET towers, sharing of the Top of Iowa Wind Farm 161 kV substation and a single O&M Building

Foundation (each)

Approx 430 cu yards of concrete; 34 tons of reinforcement steel

Job Creation

Approx 96,000 person-hours (or 75 people for 8 months) during construction: 4-6 long-term operational

Power Purchasers

Wisconsin Public Power and Madison Gas and Electric

Local County Taxes

Approx $23.2 Million over 25 years

Ground Breaking

April, 2007

Commercial Operation

February, 2008
Project Name

Top of Iowa III Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation

Owner

Madison Gas and Electric Company

Constructor

Wanzek

Size

29.7 MW

Location

Approx 3 miles west of the Town of Kensett, Worth County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 1,332 acres of cropland consisting of 10 separate parcels of land [45 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

18 Vestas 1.65 MW turbines on 260 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

6.2 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 3.8 miles of gravel service roads, 1 permanent MET towers and sharing of the Top of Iowa Wind Farm 161 kV substation

Foundation (each)

Approx 390 cu yards of concrete; 30 tons of reinforced steel

Job Creation

Approx 36,000 person-hours (or 25 people for 6 months) during construction; 1-2 long-term operational

Local County Taxes

Approx $10.3 Million over 25 years

Ground Breaking

April, 2007

Commercial Operation

October, 2007
Project Name

Barton II Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation

Owner

Iberdrola Renewable Energies

Constructor

Wanzek

Size

80 MW

Location

Approx 6 miles east of the Town of Kensett, Worth County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 8000 acres of cropland consisting of over 50 separate parcels of land [100 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

40 Gamesa G87 2 MW turbines on 260 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

12 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 10.2 miles of gravel service roads, 1 permanent MET towers, a single 161 kV substation shared with Barton and a single shared O&M Building

Foundations [each]

Approx 450 cu yards of concrete; 34 tons of reinforcement steel

Job Creation

Approx 96,000 person-hours (or 75 people for 8 months) during construction; 5-6 long-term operational

Local County Taxes

Approx $30 Million over 25 years

Ground Breaking

May, 2008

Commercial Operation

June, 2009
Project Name

Elk Wind Farm

Project Owner

Elk Wind Energy LLC

Project Developer

RPMA Wind Development LLC

Project Size

41 MW

Project Location

West of town of Greeley in Elk Township, Delaware County, Iowa

Project Site Area

Approximately 3,367 acres of gently rolling and open farmland where corn and soy beans are the dominant crops [82 acres/MW]

Proposed Generating Equipment

Between 27 – 1.5 MW to 17 – 2.4 MW turbines on 80 meter tubular towers [17 – 2.5 MW actually erected]

Proposed Balance of Plant Facilities

Approximately 9.7 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 5.4 miles of gravel service roads, 14 entrances, 1 permanent MET tower, a single 69 kV substation, and a single operations and maintenance building

Expected Ground Breaking

May 1, 2011

Expected Commercial Operation

Dec 31, 2011
Project Name

Winnebago Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation

Owner

Iberdrola Renewable Energies

Constructor

Wanzek

Size

20 MW

Location

Approx 2 miles south of the Town of Thompson, Winnebago County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 2000 acres of cropland consisting of over 12 separate parcels of land [100 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

10 Gamesa G87 2MW turbines on 260 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

Approx 3 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 2.5 miles of gravel service roads, 1 permanent MET towers, a single 69kV substation and a single shared O&M Building

Foundation (each)

Approx 450 cu yards of concrete; 34 tons of reinforcement steel

Job Creation

Approx 24,000 person-hours (or 38 people for 4 months) during construction; 1-2 long-term operational

Local County Taxes

Approx $7.5 Million over 25 years

Power Purchaser

Dairyland Power Cooperative

Ground Breaking

May, 2008

Commercial Operation

September, 2008

Bookmark and Share


Earlier Documents »

Get the Facts Follow Wind Watch on Twitter

Wind Watch on Facebook

Share

CONTACT DONATE PRIVACY ABOUT SEARCH
© National Wind Watch, Inc.
Use of copyrighted material adheres to Fair Use.
"Wind Watch" is a registered trademark.
Share

 Follow: