Resource Documents: Technology (143 items)
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Aesthetics, Economics, Environment, General, Property values, Siting, Technology, U.S., Wildlife •
Author: Gross, Samantha; and Brookings Institution
Decreasing greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity sector is crucial to avoiding the worst impacts of climate change. The American public overwhelmingly favors renewable power, and the costs of wind and solar power have declined rapidly in recent years. However, inherent attributes of wind and solar generation make conflicts over land use and project siting more likely. Power plants and transmission lines will be located in areas not accustomed to industrial development, potentially creating opposition.
Wind and solar generation require at least 10 times as much land per unit of power produced than coal- or natural gas-fired power plants, including land disturbed to produce and transport the fossil fuels. Additionally, wind and solar generation are located where the resource availability is best instead of where is most convenient for people and infrastructure, since their “fuel” can’t be transported like fossil fuels. Siting of wind facilities is especially challenging. Modern wind turbines are huge; most new turbines being installed in the United States today are the height of a 35-story building. Wind resources are best in open plains and on ridgetops, locations where the turbines can be seen for long distances.
Even though people like wind and solar power in the abstract, some object to large projects near their homes, especially if they don’t financially benefit from the project. Transmission for renewable power can also be unpopular, and even more difficult to site when the power is just passing through an area, rather than directly benefiting local residents. This is an issue today building transmission to move wind power from the Great Plains and Upper Midwest states to cities in the east.
Technological and policy solutions can lessen the land use impact of renewable power and the resulting public opposition. Offshore wind eliminates land use, but it raises opposition among those concerned with the impact on the environment and scenic views. Building on previously disturbed land and combining renewable power with other land uses, like agriculture or building solar on rooftops, can minimize land use conflicts. Community involvement in project planning and regulations for land use and zoning can help to alleviate concerns. Nevertheless, there is no perfect way to produce electricity on an industrial scale. Policymakers must recognize these challenges and face them head-on as the nation transitions to a lower-carbon energy system.
Download original document: “Renewables, land use, and local opposition in the United States”
Author: Cooper, Steven
There are technical difficulties in producing an accurate wind turbine noise signal for subjective testing of the noise characteristics for different operational scenarios of wind turbines. There are differences in the subjective response when limiting the test signals to infrasound only versus the use of full spectra. The concept of “nocebo” effect that has been presented has relied upon the use of “synthesised wind turbine infrasound” that does not reflect the signature or pressure pulsations observed in full-spectrum field measurements. The validity of “synthesised wind farm infrasound signals” that have been used in such testing is examined and compared with full-spectrum signals.
Steven Cooper, The Acoustic Group, Australia
Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 912–919
Download original document: “The use of synthesised or actual wind turbine noise for subjective evaluation purposes”
Simplified method for determination of “amplitude modulation” of audible and inaudible wind turbine noise
Author: Cooper, Steven
The operation of a wind turbine results in a series of pulses where there is a significant instantaneous increase in the amplitude of the pressure signal dependent upon the loading (power output and wind strength) of the wind turbine. Such amplitude variations can be significant. The modulation of the amplitude of the acoustic signature for wind turbines is often referred to as “amplitude modulation”. One method of assessment of the degree of amplitude modulation for a wind turbine used in the UK is complex, time-consuming and expensive to undertake. A simplified method has been developed that is not just restricted to the dBA level and can be used to cover both inaudible and audible dynamically pulsed amplitude modulation. This simplified analysis method is not just restricted to wind turbine noise but has uses for other pulsating noise sources. Investigation of recreational music and industrial noise sources that give rise to the generation of pulsations occurring at an infrasound rate using the simple methodology is discussed.
Steven Cooper, The Acoustic Group, Australia
Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 920–927
Download original document: “A simplified method for determination of “amplitude modulation” of audible and inaudible wind turbine noise”
Influence evaluation of infrasound by using both of biological information and infrasound sensors in the vicinity of wind turbine facilities
Author: Nagamatus, Megumi; and Yamamoto, Masa-yuki
In recent years, wind power generation attracts attention. However, problem of low frequency sound generated by wind turbines and its influence on human beings have been gradually taken up in society. We investigated the influence of ultra-low frequency sound generated from wind turbines on human subjects/testers from both aspects of measurement of audible/infrasonic sound and multiple biometric information sensing systems. In the experiment outside, portable electroencephalographs and pulse wave sensors are used because only such small equipment can be used to perform biological information sensing outdoor, in the vicinity of a wind turbine facility. In order to calculate relax trends from the obtained biological information, a method based on previous analyses for obtaining relaxation degrees R is used. It is coming from the fact that content rate of each frequency band included in the electroencephalogram waveform varies depending on the human mental state in the brain wave. Also, in analyzing the heart beat wave, we used an analytical method to find stress degrees S by using the balance of autonomic nerve that can be calculated from the heart beat signal fluctuations. Here we would like to introduce the result using the above analyses methods for almost 30 examples.
Megumi NAGAMATSU, Masa-yuki YAMAMOTO
Kochi University of Technology, Japan
Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, 9–13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany: pages 2992–2999