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Resource Documents: Siting (102 items)

RSSSiting

Unless indicated otherwise, documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are shared here to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate. • The copyrights reside with the sources indicated. As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations.


Date added:  January 12, 2023
Iowa, Regulations, SitingPrint storyE-mail story

Act relating to the siting and operation of certain wind energy conversion facilities

Author:  Iowa State Senate

3. a. A wind energy conversion facility shall be sited at the following distances:

(1) No less than two and one-half times the total height of a wind turbine to be constructed on a proposed facility or five thousand feet, whichever is greater, from any existing abutting dwelling or nonparticipating property.

(2) No less than one and one-tenth times the total height of a wind turbine to be constructed on a proposed facility or five hundred feet, whichever is greater, from any existing overhead utility line, electric substation, public road right-of-way, railroad right-of-way, or unoccupied structure. …

4. a. Prior to the siting of a proposed wind energy conversion facility, the owner of the proposed facility shall notify the owner or operator of any registered or licensed tower used for emergency services communications which is located within a five-mile radius of the proposed location.

b. A wind energy conversion facility shall be sited at a location which does not interfere with any existing emergency services communication equipment or systems. If the facility interferes with any such communication equipment or systems, the owner of the facility shall take all steps necessary to mitigate the effects of the interference.

5. Prior to the siting of a proposed wind energy conversion facility, the owner of the proposed facility shall file a decommissioning plan with the county recorder of the county in which the proposed facility will be located. If the proposed facility will be located within two miles outside the corporate limits of a city, the owner of the proposed facility shall also file the plan with the city clerk of the city. The plan shall be accompanied by a bond or an irrevocable letter of credit in an amount sufficient to cover the costs of removal of the facility. This subsection shall not apply to a wind energy conversion facility owned or operated by a rate-regulated public utility.

6. A wind energy conversion facility shall be presumed abandoned if the facility fails to operate or be staffed for more than twenty-four consecutive months without generating energy. The owner of the abandoned facility shall be responsible for the removal of the facility, including the removal of infrastructure four feet below ground level.

7. This section does not prohibit a local authority from imposing additional or more restrictive regulations or requirements relating to the siting or removal of wind energy conversion facilities, except to the extent such regulations or requirements conflict with this section or any other provision of law.

8. This section does not prohibit a landowner from waiving any requirements under this section by conveying an easement or other property interest. …

Sec. 2. NEW SECTION. 476.50A Wind energy conversion facilities —— connection with electric distribution system.

1. A wind energy conversion facility, as defined in section 476C.1, which has a nameplate generating capacity greater than five hundred kilowatts shall not connect with the electric distribution system unless authorized by the board in a contested case proceeding pursuant to chapter 17A. The board shall set the case for hearing and give such notice thereof as it deems appropriate. The board shall, as part of its review, consider engineering studies conducted by affected public utilities.

2. This section shall not apply to a wind energy conversion facility owned or operated by a rate-regulated public utility.

EXPLANATION

This bill establishes new Code sections 476.50 and 476.50A, relating to the siting and operation of certain wind energy conversion facilities.

New Code section 476.50 provides certain siting requirements for wind energy conversion facilities which have a nameplate generating capacity greater than 100 kilowatts. The bill provides that it is the intent of the general assembly to: support the establishment and growth of renewable energy in Iowa through common sense regulations that ensure fairness; prevent regulatory manipulation efforts by unregulated entities; and encourage statewide uniform standards for the siting and development of wind energy conversion facilities in Iowa. The bill provides that it is not the intent of the general assembly to negatively affect renewable energy generation for private generation customers, rate-regulated public utilities, municipally owned utilities, or rural electric cooperatives.

The bill provides that a facility shall be sited at a distance no less than the greater of two and one-half times the total height of a wind turbine to be constructed on a proposed facility, as described in the bill, or 5,000 feet from any existing abutting dwelling or nonparticipating property, and at a distance no less than the greater of one and one-tenth times the total height of a wind turbine or 500 feet from any existing overhead utility line, electric substation, public road right-of-way, railroad right-of-way, or unoccupied structure. The bill includes definitions for “abutting dwelling”, “nonparticipating property”, “public road right-of-way”, “railroad right-of-way”, and “unoccupied structure”.

The bill provides that prior to the siting of a proposed facility, the owner of the proposed facility shall notify the owner or operator of any registered or licensed emergency services communications tower located within a five-mile radius of the proposed location. A facility shall be sited at a location which does not interfere with any existing emergency services communication equipment or systems. If the facility interferes with any such equipment, the owner of the facility shall take all necessary steps to mitigate the interference.

The bill provides that prior to the siting of a proposed facility, the owner of the proposed facility shall file a decommissioning plan with the county where the proposed facility will be located, and specified cities if applicable.

The plan shall be accompanied with a bond or irrevocable letter of credit in an amount sufficient to cover the costs of removal of the facility. This requirement does not apply to a facility owned or operated by a rate-regulated public utility.

The bill provides that a facility shall be presumed abandoned and shall be removed by the owner, including the removal of infrastructure four feet below ground level, if the facility fails to operate or be staffed for more than consecutive months without generating energy.

The bill provides that it does not prohibit local authorities from imposing additional or more restrictive requirements relating to the siting or removal of facilities, unless such requirements conflict with the bill or any other provision of law. The bill also provides that it does not prohibit a landowner from waiving any requirements of the bill with respect to siting.

The bill provides that it does not apply to wind energy conversion facilities existing on or before January 1, 2024, or facilities the construction of which is begun prior to January 1, 2024, and is scheduled for completion by January 1, 2025, as described in the bill. The Iowa utilities board may grant additional time for completion of such a facility for a period of up to 12 months upon a showing of good cause.

The bill provides that it does not apply to the repowering of a wind energy conversion facility existing on or before January 1, 2024, provided that the repowering does not violate the siting distance requirements contained in the bill.

The bill provides that the board may adopt rules to implement Code section 476.50.

New Code section 476.50A provides that wind energy conversion facilities which have a nameplate generating capacity of greater than 500 kilowatts shall not connect with the electric distribution system unless authorized by the board pursuant to a contested case proceeding, after notice and a hearing. In doing so, the board shall consider engineering studies conducted by affected public utilities. Code section 476.50A does not apply to facilities owned or operated by rate-regulated public utilities.

Introduced January 9, 2023.

Download original document: “An Act relating to the siting and operation of certain wind energy conversion facilities

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Date added:  March 2, 2021
Iowa, Siting, TechnologyPrint storyE-mail story

Some project specs in Iowa: area, infrastructure, foundations

Author:  RPM Access

Project Name

Top of Iowa Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation and Zilkha Renewable Energy

Owner

Entergy Corporation and Shell Wind Corporation

Contructor

M.A. Mortenson

Project Size

81 MW

Location

Approx 3 miles east of Town of Joice, Worth County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 5,900 acres of cropland consisting of 49 separate parcels of land [73 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

89 NEG Micon 900 kW turbines on 237 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

21.8 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 10.4 miles of overhead electric cable, 16 miles of gravel service roads, 2 permanent MET towers, one 161 kV substation, and one operation and maintenance building

Foundation (each)

7 ft deep, 42 feet wide; 188 cu yards of concrete; 25,713 lbs of reinforcing steel

Job Creation

Approx 95,300 person-hours (or 75 people for 8 months) during construction; 4-6 long-term jobs

Local County Taxes

Approx $13.4 Million over 25 years

Power Purchaser

Alliant Energy of Madison Wisconsin

Ground Breaking

April, 2001

Commercial Operation

November, 2001
Project Name

Top of Iowa II Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation

Owner

Iberdrola Renewable Energies

Constructor

Wanzek

Size

80 MW

Location

Approx 3 miles west of the Town of Kensett, Worth County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 6,089 acres of cropland consisting of 60 separate parcels of land [76 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

40 Gamesa G87 2MW turbines on 253 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

14.2 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 8.5 miles of gravel service roads, 1 permanent MET towers, sharing of the Top of Iowa Wind Farm 161 kV substation and a single O&M Building

Foundation (each)

Approx 430 cu yards of concrete; 34 tons of reinforcement steel

Job Creation

Approx 96,000 person-hours (or 75 people for 8 months) during construction: 4-6 long-term operational

Power Purchasers

Wisconsin Public Power and Madison Gas and Electric

Local County Taxes

Approx $23.2 Million over 25 years

Ground Breaking

April, 2007

Commercial Operation

February, 2008
Project Name

Top of Iowa III Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation

Owner

Madison Gas and Electric Company

Constructor

Wanzek

Size

29.7 MW

Location

Approx 3 miles west of the Town of Kensett, Worth County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 1,332 acres of cropland consisting of 10 separate parcels of land [45 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

18 Vestas 1.65 MW turbines on 260 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

6.2 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 3.8 miles of gravel service roads, 1 permanent MET towers and sharing of the Top of Iowa Wind Farm 161 kV substation

Foundation (each)

Approx 390 cu yards of concrete; 30 tons of reinforced steel

Job Creation

Approx 36,000 person-hours (or 25 people for 6 months) during construction; 1-2 long-term operational

Local County Taxes

Approx $10.3 Million over 25 years

Ground Breaking

April, 2007

Commercial Operation

October, 2007
Project Name

Barton II Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation

Owner

Iberdrola Renewable Energies

Constructor

Wanzek

Size

80 MW

Location

Approx 6 miles east of the Town of Kensett, Worth County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 8000 acres of cropland consisting of over 50 separate parcels of land [100 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

40 Gamesa G87 2 MW turbines on 260 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

12 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 10.2 miles of gravel service roads, 1 permanent MET towers, a single 161 kV substation shared with Barton and a single shared O&M Building

Foundations [each]

Approx 450 cu yards of concrete; 34 tons of reinforcement steel

Job Creation

Approx 96,000 person-hours (or 75 people for 8 months) during construction; 5-6 long-term operational

Local County Taxes

Approx $30 Million over 25 years

Ground Breaking

May, 2008

Commercial Operation

June, 2009
Project Name

Elk Wind Farm

Project Owner

Elk Wind Energy LLC

Project Developer

RPMA Wind Development LLC

Project Size

41 MW

Project Location

West of town of Greeley in Elk Township, Delaware County, Iowa

Project Site Area

Approximately 3,367 acres of gently rolling and open farmland where corn and soy beans are the dominant crops [82 acres/MW]

Proposed Generating Equipment

Between 27 – 1.5 MW to 17 – 2.4 MW turbines on 80 meter tubular towers [17 – 2.5 MW actually erected]

Proposed Balance of Plant Facilities

Approximately 9.7 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 5.4 miles of gravel service roads, 14 entrances, 1 permanent MET tower, a single 69 kV substation, and a single operations and maintenance building

Expected Ground Breaking

May 1, 2011

Expected Commercial Operation

Dec 31, 2011
Project Name

Winnebago Wind Farm

Developer

Midwest Renewable Energy Corporation

Owner

Iberdrola Renewable Energies

Constructor

Wanzek

Size

20 MW

Location

Approx 2 miles south of the Town of Thompson, Winnebago County, Iowa

Site Area

Approx 2000 acres of cropland consisting of over 12 separate parcels of land [100 acres/MW]

Generating Equipment

10 Gamesa G87 2MW turbines on 260 foot tall tubular towers

Balance of Plant Facilities

Approx 3 miles of underground electric and data collection cable, 2.5 miles of gravel service roads, 1 permanent MET towers, a single 69kV substation and a single shared O&M Building

Foundation (each)

Approx 450 cu yards of concrete; 34 tons of reinforcement steel

Job Creation

Approx 24,000 person-hours (or 38 people for 4 months) during construction; 1-2 long-term operational

Local County Taxes

Approx $7.5 Million over 25 years

Power Purchaser

Dairyland Power Cooperative

Ground Breaking

May, 2008

Commercial Operation

September, 2008

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Date added:  February 21, 2021
Latvia, Siting, TechnologyPrint storyE-mail story

Influence of wind turbines on radio astronomical observations in Irbene

Author:  Bezrukovs, Dmitrijs

[abstract] The reflection and diffraction of external communication and navigational transmitters from tall constructions and moving blades of wind turbines produce some short-pulse additional electromagnetic interference strong enough to fully disturb radio astronomical observations. The problem of short-pulse electromagnetic interference is distinctive to all radio telescopes surrounded by wind turbines. This problem became significant for Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre (VIRAC) after new wind park “Platene” [near Platene and Vede] of Winergy Ltd. was built in 2012 and radio telescopes RT-16 and RT-32 renovated and equipped with cryogenic high sensitive receivers. The paper deals with the analysis and evaluation of intensities and probabilities of short-pulse interferences produced by wind park “Platene” and its possible impact on radio astronomical observations at VIRAC radio telescopes. (The distance from Irbene radio telescopes to [the wind turbines near] Platene is 19.7 km and to [those near] Vede is 8.2 km.)

Dmitrijs Bezrukovs
Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre, Ventspils, Latvia

Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences 2016, N 2, P 68-74
DOI: 10.1515/lpts-2016-0015

Download original document: “Influence of wind turbines on radio astronomical observations in Irbene

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Date added:  January 22, 2021
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, SitingPrint storyE-mail story

Farmers vs. lakers: Agriculture, amenity, and community in predicting opposition to United States wind energy development

Author:  Bessette, Douglas; and Mills, Sarah

Abstract
Utility-scale wind energy is now the largest source of renewable electricity in the US. Wind energy’s continued growth remains contingent upon finding adequate resource potential and transmission capacity, along with communities willing to host turbines. While previous research on the social acceptance of wind has relied predominantly on case studies, resident surveys, and reviews of development practices and strategies, here we use a new method. We use a wind contention survey of energy professionals (n = 46) to assess the contention associated with 69 existing wind farms in four US Midwest states and identify underlying characteristics, i.e., agricultural, land-use, and demographic characteristics, that may have predisposed communities to either support or oppose wind farm development. We then use publicly available data to parameterize and model those characteristics using wind farm contention as our dependent variable. Our analysis shows that a greater proportion of production-oriented farming and fewer natural amenities in a community are associated with reduced opposition to wind farm development. Additionally, and perhaps counterintuitively, communities with a greater percentage of residents that voted Republican in the 2016 Presidential election demonstrate less opposition. Rather than negating the need for employing best practices in community engagement, stakeholder development, and participatory decision-making processes, this study can help prepare developers for the type of reception that might await them in potential host communities.

Douglas L. Bessette, Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing
Sarah B. Mills, Graham Sustainability Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 72, February 2021, 101873
doi: 10.1016/j.erss.2020.101873

Download original document: “Farmers vs. lakers: Agriculture, amenity, and community in predicting opposition to United States wind energy development

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