Resource Documents: Health (464 items)
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Author: Ageborg Morsing, Julia; Smith, Michael; Ögren, Mikael; Thorsson, Pontus; Pedersen, Eja; Forssén, Jens; and Persson Waye, Kerstin
The number of onshore wind turbines in Europe has greatly increased over recent years, a trend which can be expected to continue. However, the effects of wind turbine noise on long-term health outcomes for residents living near wind farms is largely unknown, although sleep disturbance may be a cause for particular concern. Presented here are two pilot studies with the aim of examining the acoustical properties of wind turbine noise that might be of special relevance regarding effects on sleep. In both pilots, six participants spent five consecutive nights in a sound environment laboratory. During three of the nights, participants were exposed to wind turbine noise with variations in sound pressure level, amplitude modulation strength and frequency, spectral content, turbine rotational frequency and beating behaviour. The impact of noise on sleep was measured using polysomnography and questionnaires. During nights with wind turbine noise there was more frequent awakening, less deep sleep, less continuous N2 sleep and increased subjective disturbance compared to control nights. The findings indicated that amplitude modulation strength, spectral frequency and the presence of strong beats might be of particular importance for adverse sleep effects. The findings will be used in the development of experimental exposures for use in future, larger studies.
Julia Ageborg Morsing, Mikael Ögren, Kerstin Persson Waye
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Michael G. Smith
Unit for Experimental Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia
Pontus Thorsson, Jens Forssén
Division of Applied Acoustics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, Lund University, Sweden
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018 Nov 17;15(11), E2573. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15112573.
Download original document: “Wind Turbine Noise and Sleep: Pilot Studies on the Influence of Noise Characteristics”
Download the supplemental material (morning questionnaire and noise spectra for the experimental wind turbine noise)
A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health:
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review of Transport Noise Interventions and Their Impacts on Health.
Brown, A.; van Kamp, I.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080873.
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Permanent Hearing Loss and Tinnitus.
Śliwińska-Kowalska, M.; Zaborowski, K.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101139.
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Adverse Birth Outcomes.
Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Ristovska, G.; Dadvand, P.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101252.
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Annoyance.
Guski, R.; Schreckenberg, D.; Schuemer, R.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121539.
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Cognition.
Clark, C.; Paunovic, K.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020285.
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects: A Summary.
van Kempen, E.; Casas, M.; Pershagen, G.; Foraster, M.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020379.
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Effects on Sleep.
Basner, M.; McGuire, S.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030519.
Development of the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: An Introduction.
Jarosińska, D.; Héroux, M.; Wilkhu, P.; Creswick, J.; Verbeek, J.; Wothge, J.; Paunović, E.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040813.
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Quality of Life, Wellbeing and Mental Health.
Clark, C.; Paunovic, K.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112400.
Author: Ishitake, Tatsuya
We investigated whether long-term exposure to low-frequency noise generated by wind power facilities is a risk factor for sleep disorders. We performed an epidemiological study of the living environment and health effects of such noise by surveying 9,000 residents (≥20 years of age) living in areas with operational wind power facilities. Sleep disorders were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale. To assess environmental noise in residential areas near wind turbines, infrasound and low-frequency sound exposure levels were measured at 50 community centers of a town. The prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher among residents who reported subjectively hearing noise (by approximately twofold) than among those who did not. Moreover, the reported prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher (by approximately twofold) among residents living at a distance of ≤1,500 m from the nearest wind turbine than among residents living at a distance of ≥2,000 m, suggesting a dose-response relationship. The attitudes of residents towards wind power facilities strongly affected their responses regarding sleep disorder prevalence. It is highly likely that audible noise generated by wind power facilities is a risk factor for sleep disorders. Obtaining a satisfactory consensus from local residents before installing wind power facilities is important as for more amenable their attitudes towards such facilities. [Article in Japanese]
Tatsuya Ishitake, Department of Environmental Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi [Japanese Journal of Hygiene]. 2018;73(3):298-304. doi: 10.1265/jjh.73.298.
Download original document: “風力発電施設による超低周波音・騒音の健康影響”
Author: Harbo Paulsen, Aslak; et al.
- We identified all Danes exposed to wind turbine noise (WTN) from 1982 to 2013.
- We then identified all live born singletons from mothers in this population.
- We investigated preterm birth, low birth weight and small for gestational age.
- We found no associations between WTN and the adverse birth outcomes.
- Few women had high levels of WTN and independent replication is called for.
Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, raising concerns as to whether WT noise (WTN) may negatively affect health, as reported for traffic noise. We aimed to investigate whether residential WTN is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Based on national registries, we identified all Danish dwellings situated within ≤ 20 wt heights radius and a random selection of 25% of dwellings situated within 20–40 wt heights radius of a WT. We identified 135,795 pregnant women living in the dwellings from 1982 to 2013, and collected information on gestational age and birth weight from a national birth registry. Using data on WT type and simulated hourly wind at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency (LF) indoor WTN at the dwellings of the pregnant women and aggregated as mean nighttime WTN during pregnancy. We used logistic regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates for the analyses. We did not find evidence suggesting that mean pregnancy or trimester-specific exposure to outdoor or indoor LF WTN were associated with any of the three adverse birth outcomes investigated: preterm birth (n = 13,003), term small for gestational age (n = 12,220) or term low birth weight (n = 1127). However, the number of cases in the highest exposure categories of ≥ 42 dB outdoor WTN or ≥ 15 dB indoor LF WTN were low for all outcomes (n between 0 and 31). The present study does not support an association between nighttime WTN and adverse birth outcomes. However, there were few cases in the high exposure groups and the results call for reproduction.
Aslak Harbo Poulsen
Andrea N. Hahmann
Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg
- Diet, Genes and Environment (A.H.P., Ol.R.-N., R.B.N., M.S.), Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark
- DTU Wind Energy (A.P., A.N.H.), Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark
- Department of Environmental Science (O.R.-N., J.B.), Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
- Department of Natural Science and Environment (M.S.), Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark
Environmental Research, Volume 167, November 2018, Pages 770-775