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Resource Documents by de Groot, K.

le Pair, C.; Udo, F.; and de Groot, K.
Wind turbines as yet unsuitable as electricity providers 
Wind turbines have been widely accepted as electricity producers thanks to claims that wind comes free of charge, and each kWh thus produced replaces a kWh provided by conventional techniques, i.e., it saves the fossil fuel otherwise needed. However, these assumptions have never been validated in existing power distribution systems even after the installation of as much as 86 GW of wind power in Europe alone. The wind energy flux varies with the third power of the wind speed. Wind . . . Complete article »

de Groot, K.; and le Pair, C.
Hidden fuel costs of wind generated electricity 
Summary Wind generated electricity requires back up capacity of conventional power stations. This capacity is required to deliver electricity to consumers when wind supply is falling short. To have the non-wind power stations ramp up or down to compensate for the stochastic wind variations causes extra efficiency loss for such power stations. How much efficiency is lost in this way and how much extra fuel is required for this extra balancing of supply and demand is unknown. In this article . . . Complete article »

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