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Resource Documents by Kleidon, Axel

Miller, Lee; and Kleidon, Axel
Wind speed reductions by large-scale wind turbine deployments lower turbine efficiencies and set low generation limits
Abstract: Wind turbines generate electricity by removing kinetic energy from the atmosphere. Large numbers of wind turbines are likely to reduce wind speeds, which lowers estimates of electricity generation from what would be presumed from unaffected conditions. Here, we test how well wind power limits that account for this effect can be estimated without explicitly simulating atmospheric dynamics. We first use simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) that explicitly simulates the effects of wind turbines to derive wind . . . Complete article »

Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian; and Kleidon, Axel
Estimating maximum global land surface wind power extractability and associated climatic consequences
Abstract. The availability of wind power for renewable energy extraction is ultimately limited by how much kinetic energy is generated by natural processes within the Earth system and by fundamental limits of how much of the wind power can be extracted. Here we use these considerations to provide a maximum estimate of wind power availability over land. We use several different methods. First, we outline the processes associated with wind power generation and extraction with a simple power transfer hierarchy . . . Complete article »

Kleidon, Axel
How does the earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?
[Abstract] The chemical composition of the earth’s atmosphere far from equilibrium is unique in the solar system and has been attributed to the presence of widespread life. Here I show that this perspective can be quantified using non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Generating disequilibrium in a thermodynamic variable requires the extraction of power from another thermodynamic gradient, and the second law of thermodynamics imposes fundamental limits on how much power can be extracted. When applied to complex earth system processes, where several irreversible . . . Complete article »

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