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Resource Documents by Hansen, Kristy

Hansen, Kristy; Zajamšek, Branko; and Hansen, Colin
Investigation of a microphone height correction for long-range wind farm noise measurements
Abstract: In the measurement of wind farm noise, it is standard practice to mount outdoor microphones at a height of 1.5 m. On the other hand, measurements at this height can be affected by wind-induced noise, which has the potential to mask the noise of interest, particularly at low and infrasonic frequencies. Therefore, to minimise wind-induced noise, it is advantageous to measure on or below the ground, where the wind speed is close to zero. However, results from measurements taken at . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Kristy; Nguyen, Phuc; Zajamšek, Branko; Catcheside, Peter; and Hansen, Colin
Prevalence of wind farm amplitude modulation at long-range residential locations
Abstract: The presence of amplitude modulation (AM) in wind farm noise has been shown to result in increased annoyance. Therefore, it is important to determine how often this characteristic is present at residential locations near a wind farm. This study investigates the prevalence and characteristics of wind farm AM at 9 different residences located near a South Australian wind farm that has been the subject of complaints from local residents. It is shown that an audible indoor low-frequency tone was . . . Complete article »

Nguyen, Phuc; Hansen, Kristy; and Zajamšek, Branko
Characterizing tonal amplitude modulation of wind farm noise
[ABSTRACT] In addition to the overall noise level, periodic variations in the loudness of wind turbine noise, known as Amplitude Modulation (AM), also significantly contribute to the annoyance experienced by residents living near wind farms. Due to the high dependence of AM on meteorological conditions and the type of wind turbines, the level and duration of AM are hard to predict. These characteristics have an important impact on the annoyance response of residents. The level of annoyance is expected to . . . Complete article »

Zajamšek, Branko; Hansen, Kristy; Doolan, Con; and Hansen, Colin
Characterisation of wind farm infrasound and low-frequency noise
This paper seeks to characterise infrasound and low-frequency noise (ILFN) from a wind farm, which contains distinct tonal components with distinguishable blade-pass frequency and higher harmonics. Acoustic measurements were conducted at dwellings in the vicinity of the wind farm and meteorological measurements were taken at the wind farm location and dwellings. Wind farm ILFN was measured frequently under stable and very stable atmospheric conditions and was also found to be dependent on the time of year. For noise character assessment, . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Kristy; Zajamšek, Branko; and Hansen, Colin
Comparison of the noise levels measured in the vicinity of a wind farm for shutdown and operational conditions
ABSTRACT Outdoor and indoor microphone measurements have been taken in the vicinity of the Waterloo wind farm at a number of locations during periods when the nearby wind farm was operational as well as when it was shutdown. The majority of the shutdowns were of short duration and deliberate on the part of the wind farm operator, as they were associated with the recent EPA noise impact study. However, one of the shutdowns lasted for several days as it was . . . Complete article »

Zajamšek, Branko; Hansen, Kristy; and Hansen, Colin
Investigation of the time-dependent nature of infrasound measured near a wind farm
ABSTRACT It is well-known that wind farm noise is dominated by low-frequency energy at large distances from the wind farm, where the high frequency noise has been more attenuated than low-frequency noise. It has also been found that wind farm noise is highly variable with time due to the influence of atmospheric factors such as atmospheric turbulence, wake turbulence from upstream turbines and wind shear, as well as effects that can be attributed to blade rotation. Nevertheless, many standards that . . . Complete article »

Zajamšek, Branko; Moreau, Danielle; Doolan, Con; and Hansen, Kristy
Indoor Infrasound and low-frequency noise monitoring in a rural environment
This paper presents the results of recent indoor noise monitoring test that was conducted in a room of a home near a wind farm whose resident claims to be annoyed by wind farm noise. The testing uses low-frequency microphones that can resolve noise below 0.5 Hz. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship(s) between the sound pressure level, weather conditions, resident rated annoyance to sound and wind farm output power data. The study concentrates on sound in . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Kristy; Zajamšek, Branko; and Hansen, Colin
Analysis of Unweighted Low Frequency Noise and Infrasound Measured at a Residence in the Vicinity of a Wind Farm
To characterise the noise at several residences located nearby a South Australian wind farm, time-data files as well as the third-octave spectra have been measured indoors and outdoors using low-frequency microphones fitted with various wind shields. Five consecutive nights of data have been analysed and four cases are presented here to highlight the importance of atmospheric stability and the relative wind direction between the wind farm and a residence on the measured results. In the downwind cases, two low frequency . . . Complete article »

Hansen, Kristy; Henrys, Nicholas; Hansen, Colin; Doolan, Con; and Moreau, Danielle
Wind farm noise – what is a reasonable limit in rural areas?
CONCLUSIONS This paper has highlighted that the wind farm noise limits stated in the EPA guidelines (2009) do not ensure adequate protection of the amenity of rural communities. In addition, the concept of zoning has been challenged and background noise levels measured at each residence are proposed as a more suitable method for indicating acceptable noise limits at a given location. A dose response study specific to South Australian rural areas is considered pertinent to provide further guidance for selection . . . Complete article »

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