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Resource Documents by Arnett, Edward

Arnett, Edward; Baerwald, Erin; Mathews, Fiona; Rodriques, Luisa; Rodríquez-Durán, Armando; Rydell, Jens; Villegas-Patrace, Rafael; and Voigt, Christian
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective
Abstract – Wind energy continues to be one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources under development, and while representing a clean energy source, it is not environmentally neutral. Large numbers of bats are being killed at utility-scale wind energy facilities worldwide, raising concern about cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bat populations. We discuss our current state of knowledge on patterns of bat fatalities at wind facilities, estimates of fatalities, mitigation efforts, and policy and conservation implications. Given the . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; and Baerwald, Erin
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Implications for Conservation
Abstract — At a time of growing concern over the rising costs and long-term environmental impacts from the use of fossil fuels, wind energy has become an increasingly important sector of the electrical power industry. However, large numbers of bats are being killed at utility-scale wind energy facilities, and these fatalities raise important concerns about cumulative impacts of proposed wind energy development on bat populations. We discuss our current state of knowledge on patterns of bat fatalities at wind facilities, . . . Complete article »

Martin, Colleen; Arnett, Edward; Stevens, Richard; and Wallace, Mark
Reducing bat fatalities at wind facilities while improving the economic efficiency of operational mitigation
Abstract: Concerns about cumulative population-level effects of bat fatalities at wind facilities have led to mitigation strategies to reduce turbine-related bat mortality. Operational mitigation that limits operation may reduce fatalities but also limits energy production. We incorporated both temperature and wind speed into an operational mitigation design fine-tuned to conditions when bats are most active in order to improve economic efficiency of mitigation. We conducted a 2-year study at the Sheffield Wind Facility in Sheffield, Vermont. Activity of bats is . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; Huso, Manuela; Schirmacher, Michael; and Hayes, John
Altering turbine speed reduces bat mortality at wind-energy facilities
Wind-turbine operations are associated with bat mortality worldwide; minimizing these fatalities is critically important to both bat conservation and public acceptance of wind-energy development. We tested the effectiveness of raising wind-turbine cut-in speed – defined as the lowest wind speed at which turbines generate power to the utility system, thereby reducing turbine operation during periods of low wind speeds – to decrease bat mortality at the Casselman Wind Project in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, over a 2-year period. Observed bat mortality . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; Hein, Cris; Schirmacher, Michael; Huso, Manuela; and Szewczaik, Joseph
Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines
Abstract. Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; Johnson, Gregory; Erickson, Wally; and Hein, Cris
Synthesis of operational mitigation studies to reduce bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America
We conclude that increasing cut-in speed between 1.5 and 3.0 m/s or feathering blades and slowing rotor speed up to the turbine manufacturer’s cut-in speed yields substantial reductions in fatality of bats. Given the magnitude and extent of bat fatalities worldwide, the conservation implications of our findings are critically important. Research efforts should continue to focus on incorporating additional variables, in addition to wind speed (e.g., temperature, time of night, bat activity) into treatments and explore using automated systems to . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; Schirmacher, Michael; Huso, Manuela; and Hayes, John
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities
“Data previously collected at operating wind energy facilities indicate that a substantial portion of the bat fatalities occurs during relatively low-wind conditions over a relatively short period of time during the summer-fall bat migration period (Arnett et al. 2008). Some curtailment of turbine operations during these conditions and during this period of time has been proposed as a possible means of reducing impacts to bats (Kunz et al. 2007, Arnett et al. 2008). Indeed, recent results from studies in Canada . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward
Preliminary Evaluation on the Use of Dogs to Recover Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities
Abstract. I assessed the ability of dog–handler teams to recover dead bats (Chiroptera) during fatality searches typically performed at wind energy facilities to determine fatality rates for birds and bats. I conducted this study at the Mountaineer and Meyersdale Wind Energy Centers in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, USA, respectively. Dogs found 71% of bats used during searcher-efficiency trials at Mountaineer and 81% of those at Meyersdale, compared to 42% and 14% for human searchers, respectively. Dogs and humans both found . . . Complete article »

Arnett, Edward; et al.
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America
ABSTRACT. Wind has become one of the fastest growing sources of renewable energy worldwide, but widespread and often extensive fatalities of bats have increased concern regarding the impacts of wind energy development on bats and other wildlife. We synthesized available information on patterns of bat fatalities from a review of 21 postconstruction fatality studies conducted at 19 facilities in 5 United States regions and one Canadian province. Dominance of migratory, foliage- and tree-roosting lasiurine species (e.g., hoary bat [Lasiurus cinereus]) . . . Complete article »

Horn, Jason; Arnett, Edward; and Kunz, Thomas
Infrared Video Clips of Bats Interacting with Wind Turbines
Bats Interacting with Wind Turbines from: Horn et al. 2008 Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1 123-132 The video clips on this site are presented to support a study that appears in the Journal of Wildlife Management. This study deals with the recent finding that forest-dwelling bats are often found dead beneath operating wind turbines at wind energy facilities. We used thermal infrared video cameras to record the flight behavior of bats at night near these turbines in an attempt to . . . Complete article »

Horn, Jason; Arnett, Edward; and Kunz, Thomas
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines
ABSTRACT Wind power is one of the fastest growing sectors of the energy industry. Recent studies have reported large numbers of migratory tree-roosting bats being killed at utility-scale wind power facilities, especially in the eastern United States. We used thermal infrared (TIR) cameras to assess the flight behavior of bats at wind turbines because this technology makes it possible to observe the nocturnal behavior of bats and birds independently of supplemental light sources. We conducted this study at the Mountaineer . . . Complete article »

Kunz, Thomas; Arnett, Edward; Cooper, Brian; Erickson, Wallace; Larkin, Ronald; Mabee, Todd; Morrison, Michael; Strickland, M. Dale; and Szewczak, Joseph
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document
THOMAS H. KUNZ, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA EDWARD B. ARNETT, Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX BRIAN M. COOPER, Alaska Biological Research, Inc., Forest Grove, OR WALLACE P. ERICKSON, Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc., Cheyenne, WY RONALD P. LARKIN, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL TODD MABEE, Alaska Biological Research, Inc., Forest Grove, OR MICHAEL L. MORRISON, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX M. DALE STRICKLAND, Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc., Cheyenne, WY JOSEPH . . . Complete article »

Kunz, Thomas; Arnett, Edward; Erickson, Wallace; Hoar, Alexander; Johnson, Gregory; Larkin, Ronald; Strickland, M. Dale; Thresher, Robert; and Tuttle, Merlin
Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats
Thomas Kunz, of the Center for Ecology and Conservation Biology, Boston University, with colleagues from Bat Conservation International, Western EcoSystems Technology, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Illinois Natural History Survey, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, reviews the state of knowledge about impacts of wind energy facilities on bats. Published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, August 2007. Of particular concern is the cumulative effect of continuing wind energy development. Based on existing studies and the proposal . . . Complete article »

Mollohan, Alan; Arnett, Edward; Fry, Michael; Glitzenstein, Eric; and Daulton, Michael
Gone with the Wind: Impacts of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats
Oversight Hearing, May 1, 2007, Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans, Committee on Natural Resources: “Gone with the Wind: Impacts of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats” Download testimony: Alan B. Mollohan, Member of Congress Edward B. Arnett, Conservation Scientist, Bat Conservation International Michael Fry, Director, Birds and Pesticides, American Bird Conservancy Eric R. Glitzenstein, Partner, Meyer Glitzenstein and Crystal Michael Daulton, Director of Conservation Policy, National Audubon Society Complete article »

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