Resource Documents: Noise (564 items)
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Author: Zajamšek, Branko; Hansen, Kristy; Doolan, Con; and Hansen, Colin
This paper seeks to characterise infrasound and low-frequency noise (ILFN) from a wind farm, which contains distinct tonal components with distinguishable blade-pass frequency and higher harmonics. Acoustic measurements were conducted at dwellings in the vicinity of the wind farm and meteorological measurements were taken at the wind farm location and dwellings. Wind farm ILFN was measured frequently under stable and very stable atmospheric conditions and was also found to be dependent on the time of year. For noise character assessment, wind farm ILFN was compared with several hearing thresholds and also with the spectra obtained when the wind farm was not operating. Wind farm ILFN was found to exceed the audibility threshold at distances up to 4 km from the wind farm and to undergo large variations in magnitude with time.
Branko Zajamšek, Con J. Doolan
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Kristy L. Hansen
Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
Colin H. Hansen
University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
Journal of Sound and Vibration 370 (2016) 176–190
Author: Schäffer, Beat; et al.
[Abstract] Current literature suggests that wind turbine noise is more annoying than transportation noise. To date, however, it is not known which acoustic characteristics of wind turbines alone, i.e., without effect modifiers such as visibility, are associated with annoyance. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the short-term noise annoyance reactions to wind turbines and road traffic in controlled laboratory listening tests. A set of acoustic scenarios was created which, combined with the factorial design of the listening tests, allowed separating the individual associations of three acoustic characteristics with annoyance, namely, source type (wind turbine, road traffic), A-weighted sound pressure level, and amplitude modulation (without, periodic, random). Sixty participants rated their annoyance to the sounds. At the same A-weighted sound pressure level, wind turbine noise was found to be associated with higher annoyance than road traffic noise, particularly with amplitude modulation. The increased annoyance to amplitude modulation of wind turbines is not related to its periodicity, but seems to depend on the modulation frequency range. The study discloses a direct link of different acoustic characteristics to annoyance, yet the generalizability to long-term exposure in the field still needs to be verified.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 2016 May;139(5):2949.
Beat Schäffer, Reto Pieren, Kurt Heutschi
Laboratory for Acoustics/Noise Control, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
Sabine J. Schlittmeier, Ralf Graf, and Jürgen Hellbrück
Work, Environmental, and Health Psychology, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Eichstätt, Germany
Noise and NIR Division, Federal Office for the Environment, Bern, Switzerland
Author: Lee, Seunghoon; Kim, Kyutae; Choi, Wooyoung; and Lee, Soogab
A listening test has been performed to investigate the relationship between human annoyance and the amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise. To obtain sound samples for the listening test, sound from a 1.5 MW wind turbine in Korea was recorded. The strength of the amplitude modulation of the sound samples was defined in terms of the modulation depth spectrum, which was approximated by assuming that the sound samples are sinusoidally amplitude-modulated. The stimuli for the listening tests were created by reducing the modulation depth spectrum of the sound samples. A total of 30 participants were involved in the listening tests. The results of the listening tests indicate that the equivalent sound level and the amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise both significantly contribute to noise annoyance.
Noise Control Engineering Journal 59 (1), Jan-Feb 2011
Seunghoon Lee, Kyutae Kim
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Romax Technology Korea, Seochogu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Institute of Advanced Aerospace Technology, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Author: Agnew, Roseanna; Smith, Valerie; and Fowkes, Robert
ABSTRACT: A paucity of data exists with which to assess the effects of wind turbines noise on terrestrial wildlife, despite growing concern about the impact of infrasound from wind farms on human health and well-being. In 2013, we assessed whether the presence of turbines in Great Britain impacted the stress levels of badgers (Meles meles) in nearby setts. Hair cortisol levels were used to determine if the badgers were physiologically stressed. Hair of badgers living >1 km of a wind farm had a 264% higher cortisol level than badgers <10 km from a wind farm. This demonstrates that affected badgers suffer from enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity and are physiologically stressed. No differences were found between the cortisol levels of badgers living near wind farms operational since 2009 and 2012, indicating that the animals do not become habituated to turbine disturbance. Cortisol levels in the affected badgers did not vary in relation to the distance from turbines within 1 km, wind farm annual power output, or number of turbines. We suggest that the higher cortisol levels in affected badgers is caused by the turbines’ sound and that these high levels may affect badgers’ immune systems, which could result in increased risk of infection and disease in the badger population.
Roseanna C. N. Agnew, Valerie J. Smith, and Robert C. Fowkes
Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London, UK
Zoological Society of London, Regent’s Park, London, UK
Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, UK
Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 52(3), 2016