Resource Documents: Economics (173 items)
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Author: An Bord Pleanála
IARRATAS ar chead faoi alt 37E den Acht um Pleanáil agus Forbairt, 2000, leasaithe, de réir na bpleananna agus na sonraí, lena n-áirítear ráiteas tionchair timpeallachta agus ráiteas tionchair Natura, a thaisc North Meath Wind Farm Limited faoi chúram Fehily Timoney and Company Limited as Core House, Bóthar Pholl an Duibh, Corcaigh leis an mBord Pleanála an 6ú lá de Dheireadh Fómhair, 2014. …
Meastar go mbeadh feirm ghaoithe den scála, den mhéad agus den airde atá beartaithe ina gné thiarnasach sa cheantar tuaithe faoi líon daoine seo, go ndéanfadh sé dochar mór do thaitneamhachtaí na réadmhaoine sa chomharsanacht, go gcuirfeadh sé isteach ar charachtar an tírdhreacha agus nach mbeadh sé de réir chuspóirí forbartha iomlána Phlean Forbartha Chontae na Mí 2013-2019. Ina theannta sin, meastar nach mbeadh an fhorbairt bheartaithe ag teacht leis na Treoirlínte um Fhorbairt Fuinneamh Gaoithe de bhrí nár samhlaíodh sa doiciméad treorach seo go dtógfaí tuirbíní gaoithe a bheadh ar scála chomh mór sin i gceantar atá tréithrithe go príomha mar thírdhreach thalamh feirme cnocach agus réidh agus atá chomh cóngarach sin do líon mór áiteanna cónaithe. Mar sin bheadh an fhorbairt bheartaithe contrártha le pleanáil chuí agus forbairt inbhuanaithe an cheantair.
APPLICATION for permission under section 37E of the Planning and Development Act, 2000, as amended, in accordance with plans and particulars, including an environmental impact statement and a Natura impact statement, lodged with An Bord Pleanála on the 6th day of October, 2014 by North Meath Wind Farm Limited care of Fehily Timoney and Company Limited of Core House, Pouladuff Road, Cork. …
It is considered that a wind farm of the scale, extent and height proposed would visually dominate this populated rural area, would seriously injure the amenities of property in the vicinity, would interfere with the character of the landscape and would not be in accordance with the overall development objectives of the Meath County Development Plan 2013-2019. Furthermore, it is considered that the proposed development would not align with the Wind Energy Development Guidelines as this guidance document did not envisage the construction of such extensive large scale turbines in an area primarily characterised as a hilly and flat farmland landscape and in such proximity to high concentrations of dwellings. The proposed development would, therefore, be contrary to the proper planning and sustainable development of the area.
Analysis of the Economic Impacts of the wpd Fairview Wind Project on the Collingwood Regional Airport and the Regional Economy
Author: Malone Given Parsons; Cormier, Charles; Metro Economics; and Aerocan Aviation
In short, we conclude that the Collingwood Regional Airport is fulfilling its intended function as an economic engine and is attracting business expansion proposals that would deliver very substantial economic benefit to the South Georgian Bay region. Approval of the current wpd Turbine Project would be fatal to business expansion, such that, on balance, the offending turbines should be moved or wpd’s Renewable Energy Act Application denied.
January 8, 2016
Prepared By: MALONE GIVEN PARSONS LTD.
In Association With:
Charles Cormier, Aeronautical Information Consultant
Aerocan Aviation Ltd.
The Township of Clearview
The Town of Collingwood
Author: Ontario Society of Professional Engineers
Original Goals for Electricity System Transformation
- Reduce CO₂ emissions from power plants:
- Phase out coal plants and build new efficient CCGT gas plants.
- Restart 4 nuclear units at Bruce A and 2 units at Pickering A.
- Add wind, solar, bio-energy and small hydro generation.
- Refurbish nuclear units as they reach end of design life.
- Create new green energy sector jobs:
- FIT program to accelerate deployment of renewables.
- Create 50,000 jobs in new green sector.
- Keep transformation costs within 1% per year in additional costs:
- Install smart meters with Time-of‐Use (TOU) rates.
- Encourage peak reduction and load flattening.
- A careful engineering analysis and grid simulation would have shown that the policy goals could not have been economically accomplished because:
- Backup generation is required for wind and solar. Consequently wind and solar are displacement energy sources.
- The total value of displacement sources to the consumer is only the economic value of the displaced fuel. For hydroelectric and nuclear it’s 0.5 cents/kWh. For natural gas it’s 4 cents/kWh plus a carbon reduction benefit of 1 cent/kWh for each $30 per ton CO₂ of environmental costs.
- The policy to eliminate coal in Ontario reduced the carbon reduction benefit of wind and solar by 2.5× because gas is cleaner than coal. …
Why Will Emissions Double as We Add Wind and Solar Plants?
- Wind and Solar require flexible backup generation.
- Nuclear is too inflexible to backup renewables without expensive engineering changes to the reactors.
- Flexible electric storage is too expensive at the moment.
- Consequently natural gas provides the backup for wind and solar in North America.
- When you add wind and solar you are actually forced to reduce nuclear genera,on to make room for more natural gas genera,on to provide flexible backup.
- Ontario currently produces electricity at less than 40 grams of CO₂ emissions/kWh.
- Wind and solar with natural gas backup produces electricity at about 200 grams of CO₂ emissions/kWh. Therefore adding wind and solar to Ontario’s grid drives CO₂ emissions higher. From 2016 to 2032 as Ontario phases out nuclear capacity to make room for wind and solar, CO₂ emissions will double (2013 LTEP data).
- In Ontario, with limited economic hydro and expensive storage, it is mathematically impossible to achieve low CO₂ emissions at reasonable electricity prices without nuclear generation.
Author: Lang, Peter
Wind’s effectiveness and CO2 avoidance cost
This submission focuses on the effectiveness of wind turbines at reducing CO2 emissions from electricity generation in Australia and the impact of the effectiveness on the estimates of abatement cost ($/tonne CO2 avoided) by wind energy.
It is often assumed that effectiveness of wind energy is 100%, i.e., 1 MWh of wind energy displaces the emissions from 1 MWh of the conventional energy displaced. But it is usually much less, and values as low as 53% have been reported. To be clear, 53% effective means wind turbines avoided 53% of the emissions that, in the absence of wind, would have been produced by the generators that were displaced by wind generation.
Empirical analyses of the emissions avoided in electricity grids in the U.S. and Europe indicate that (1) wind turbines are significantly less effective at avoiding emissions than is commonly assumed and (2) effectiveness decreases as the proportion of electricity generated by wind turbines increases.
Unfortunately, neither the Clean Energy Regulator (CER) nor the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) collect the CO2 emissions information needed for an accurate empirical estimate of effectiveness. Without good data for the emissions from power stations at time intervals of 30 minutes or less, estimates of emissions avoided by wind are biased high and have large uncertainty, i.e., we don’t know what emissions reductions are actually being achieved by wind generation. …
23 March 2015