Resource Documents: Wildlife (248 items)
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Author: Nabe‐Nielsen, Jacob; et al.
Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to anthropogenic disturbances that cause animals to change behavior and move away from potential foraging grounds. Here we present a process‐based modeling framework for assessing population consequences of such sub‐lethal behavioral effects. It builds directly on how disturbances influence animal movements, foraging and energetics, and is therefore applicable to a wide range of species. To demonstrate the model we assess the impact of wind farm construction noise on the North Sea harbor porpoise population. Subsequently, we demonstrate how the model can be used to minimize population impacts of disturbances through spatial planning. Population models that build on the fundamental processes that determine animal fitness have a high predictive power in novel environments, making them ideal for marine management.
Jacob Nabe‐Nielsen, Floris M. van Beest, Jonas Teilmann, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
Volker Grimm, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Ecological Modelling, Leipzig, Germany
Richard M Sibly, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom
Paul M. Thompson, Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Conservation Letters 2018 – published online before print
Download original document: “Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations”
Action on multiple fronts, illegal poisoning and wind farm planning, is required to reverse the decline of the Egyptian vulture in southern Spain
Author: Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; et al.
Large body-sized avian scavengers, including the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), are globally threatened due to human-related mortality so guidelines quantifying the efficacy of different management approaches are urgently needed. We used 14 years of territory and individual-based data on a small and geographically isolated Spanish population to estimate survival, recruitment and breeding success. We then forecasted their population viability under current vital rates and under management scenarios that mitigated the main sources of non-natural mortality at breeding grounds (fatalities from wind farms and illegal poisoning). Mean breeding success was 0.68 (SD = 0.17) under current conditions. Annual probabilities of survival were 0.72 (SE = 0.06) for fledglings and 2 yr old non-breeders, 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for non-breeders older than 2 yrs old and 0.93 (SE = 0.04) for breeders. Probabilities of recruitment were 0 for birds aged 1–4, 0.10 (SE = 0.06) for birds aged 5 and 0.19 (SE = 0.09) for older birds. Population viability analyses estimated an annual decline of 3–4% of the breeding population under current conditions. Our results indicate that only by combining different management actions in the breeding area, especially by removing the most important causes of human-related mortality (poisoning and collisions on wind farms), will the population grow and persist in the long term. Reinforcement with captive breeding may also have positive effects but only in combination with the reduction in causes of non-natural mortality. These results, although obtained for a focal species, may be applicable to other endangered populations of long-lived avian scavengers inhabiting southern Europe.
Ana Sanz-Aguilar, José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Martina Carrete, José Ramón Benítez, Enrique Ávila, Rafael Arenas, José Antonio Donázar
Dept of Conservation Biology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC), Sevilla; Population Ecology Group, Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados (CSIC-UIB), Islas Baleares; Área de Ecología, University Miguel Hernández, Alicante; Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla; Línea de Geodiversidad y Biodiversidad, Agencia de Medioambiente y Agua, Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla; and Gestión del Medio Natural, Dirección Provincial de Córdoba, Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, Córdoba, Spain
Biological Conservation 187 (2015) 10–18. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.03.029
Author: Watson, Richard; et al.
ABSTRACT.—The global potential for wind power generation is vast, and the number of installations is increasing rapidly. We review case studies from around the world of the effects on raptors of wind-energy development. Collision mortality, displacement, and habitat loss have the potential to cause population-level effects, especially for species that are rare or endangered. The impact on raptors has much to do with their behavior, so careful siting of wind-energy developments to avoid areas suited to raptor breeding, foraging, or migration would reduce these effects. At established wind farms that already conflict with raptors, reduction of fatalities may be feasible by curtailment of turbines as raptors approach, and offset through mitigation of other human causes of mortality such as electrocution and poisoning, provided the relative effects can be quantified. Measurement of raptor mortality at wind farms is the subject of intense effort and study, especially where mitigation is required by law, with novel statistical approaches recently made available to improve the notoriously difficult-to-estimate mortality rates of rare and hard-to-detect species. Global standards for wind farm placement, monitoring, and effects mitigation would be a valuable contribution to raptor conservation worldwide.
RICHARD T. WATSON
The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
PATRICK S. KOLAR
Raptor Research Center, Department of Biological Science, Boise State University, Idaho, USA
Delegación del CSIC en Andalucía—Casa de la Ciencia, Sevilla, Spain
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim
Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada
W. GRAINGER HUNT
The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
HANNELINE A. SMIT-ROBINSON
BirdLife South Africa, Parklands, South Africa; and
Applied Behavioural Ecological & Ecosystem Research Unit, UNISA, Florida,
CHRISTOPHER J. FARMER
DNV GL—Energy, 4377 County Line Road, Chalfont, PA 18914 USA
US Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
TODD E. KATZNER
US Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Boise, Idaho, USA
The Journal of Raptor Research, March 2018, Vol. 52, No. 1
Download original document: “Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World”
Author: Lange, Corey; et al.
Freshwater ponds adjacent to the Laguna Madre along the lower Texas coast provide an important and heavily used source of fresh water for the redhead (Aythya americana) throughout winter. A 267-turbine wind farm was constructed within the core wintering area of the redhead on a private ranch along the western coast of the Laguna Madre, in 2010. Our objective was to investigate the effects of this wind farm on the habitat and potential displacement of redheads and their use of coastal ponds along the lower Texas coast. We conducted weekly aerial surveys to monitor coastal pond use by wintering redheads from mid-October through mid-March during pre-construction (2000–2003) and post-construction (2012–2014) of the wind farm. Pond availability and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) within the wind farm were significantly correlated during pre-construction (n=16, R²=0.53, P=0.035) and post-construction (n=11, R²=0.64, P=0.003). However, the number of ponds available at each PDSI level within the wind farm decreased during post-construction (paired t=3.2, n=5, P=0.033). The average number of redheads detected per survey on coastal ponds within the wind farm decreased by 77% from pre-construction to post-construction. Redhead abundance on ponds across the entire Laguna Madre increased by an average of 3.26 times between pre-construction and post-construction, partly due to increases in the continental redhead population. It appears that the wind farm has altered the use of coastal ponds by redheads during winter. Future wind farm placement along the lower Texas coast should consider coastal pond distribution and the dynamics of redhead use between coastal ponds and foraging areas in the Laguna Madre.
Corey J. Lange, Bart M. Ballard, Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University, Kingsville
Daniel P. Collins, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 2, Albuquerque, New Mexico
The Journal of Wildlife Management, Volume 82, Issue 3, April 2018, Pages 531-537
Download original document: “Impacts of Wind Turbines on Redheads in the Laguna Madre”