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Resource Documents: Impacts (118 items)

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Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.


Date added:  September 30, 2016
WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Selection of recent studies on birds and bats and wind turbines

Author:  Various

Watson, J. W., Duff, A. A. and Davies, R. W. (2014), Home range and resource selection by GPS-monitored adult golden eagles in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion: Implications for wind power development. Journal of Wildlife Management, 78(6): 1012–1021. doi:10.1002/jwmg.745

Katzner, T. E., Brandes, D., Miller, T., Lanzone, M., Maisonneuve, C., Tremblay, J. A., Mulvihill, R. and Merovich, G. T. (2012), Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49(5): 1178–1186. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02185.x [download PDF]

Kolar, P. S. and Bechard, M. J. (2016), Wind energy, nest success, and post-fledging survival of Buteo hawks. Journal of Wildlife Management, 80(7): 1242–1255. doi:10.1002/jwmg.21125

Shaffer, J. A. and Buhl, D. A. (2016), Effects of wind-energy facilities on breeding grassland bird distributions. Conservation Biology, 30(1): 59–71. doi:10.1111/cobi.12569 [download PDF]

Graff, B. J., Jenks, J. A., Stafford, J. D., Jensen, K. C. and Grovenburg, T. W. (2016), Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas. Journal of Wildlife Management, 80(4): 736–745. doi:10.1002/jwmg.1051

Pylant, C. L., Nelson, D. M., Fitzpatrick, M. C., Gates, J. E. and Keller, S. R. (2016), Geographic origins and population genetics of bats killed at wind-energy facilities. Ecological Applications, 26(5): 1381–1395. doi:10.1890/15-0541

Voigt, C. C., Lindecke, O., Schönborn, S., Kramer-Schadt, S. and Lehmann, D. (2016), Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines. Ecological Applications, 26(3): 771–783. doi:10.1890/15-0671

Zimmerling, J. R. and Francis, C. M. (2016), Bat mortality due to wind turbines in Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management. doi:10.1002/jwmg.21128

Baerwald, E. F., W. P. Patterson, and R. M. R. Barclay (2014), Origins and migratory patterns of bats killed by wind turbines in southern Alberta: evidence from stable isotopes. Ecosphere 5(9): 1–17. doi:10.1890/ES13-00380.1 [download PDF]

Kunz, T. H., Arnett, E. B., Erickson, W. P., Hoar, A. R., Johnson, G. D., Larkin, R. P., Strickland, M. D., Thresher, R. W. and Tuttle, M. D. (2007), Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(6): 315–324. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[315:EIOWED]2.0.CO;2 [download PDF]

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Date added:  September 29, 2016
California, WildlifePrint storyE-mail story

Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

Author:  Katzner, Todd; et al.

Abstract. Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

Todd E. Katzner, U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Boise, Idaho

David M. Nelson and Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Appalachian Laboratory, Frostburg, Maryland

Melissa A. Braham, Adam E. Duerr, and Tricia A. Miller, Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

Jacqueline M. Doyle, Nadia B. Fernandez, and J. Andrew DeWoody, Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Peter H. Bloom, Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Camarillo, California

Renee C. E. Culver and Loan Braswell, NextEra Energy Resources, Juno Beach, Florida

Conservation Biology
First published: 27 September 2016
DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12836

Fatalidades del Águila Dorada y Consecuencias a Escala Continental de la Generación Local de Energía Eólica

Resumen

La producción de energía renovable se está expandiendo rápidamente a pesar de los muchos efectos desconocidos sobre la vida silvestre y sus hábitats. Utilizamos los datos genéticos y de isotopos estables recolectados de águilas doradas (Aquila chrysaetos) muertas en el Área de Recursos de Aire del Paso de Altamont (ARAPA) en California en modelos demográficos para probar las hipótesis sobre la extensión geográfica y las consecuencias demográficas de las fatalidades causadas por las instalaciones de energía renovable. Los análisis geoespaciales de los valores de δ2H obtenidos de las plumas mostraron que ≥25 % de estas águilas muertas en ARAPA eran migrantes recientes hacia la población, la mayoría desde distancias lejanas (>100 km). Los datos de los genes nucleares indicaron que este subconjunto de águilas inmigrantes era genéticamente similar a las aves identificadas como locales a partir de los datos de δ2H. Los modelos demográficos insinuaron que, de frente a esta mortalidad, la estabilidad aparente de la población local de águilas doradas fue mantenida por una inmigración a escala continental. Estos análisis demuestran que las decisiones de manejo del ecosistema con respecto a los efectos de la energía renovable a escala local pueden tener consecuencias a escala continental.

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Date added:  September 26, 2016
Health, Noise, WisconsinPrint storyE-mail story

Shirley Wind case crossover testimonies

Author:  Brown County Citizens for Responsible Wind Energy

The following one page statement, and the twelve case crossover testimonies attached, were submitted to the Brown County (Wisconsin) Board of Health on September 13, 2016, by Barbara Vanden Boogart, Vice President of BCCRWE (Brown County Citizens for Responsible Wind Energy).

In late July 2016, all of the Shirley Wind turbines were shut down for several consecutive days and nights – Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and part of Thursday, July 25-28. Not only were the wind turbines not operating during this timeframe, it also appears that all electric power to the wind turbines was also shut down for some or all of this timeframe, as evidenced by the fact that the red warning lights on top of the wind turbines were not illuminated during one or more of these nights. Also it was observed that work was being performed on the Shirley Wind substation during this timeframe.

After the wind turbines resumed operation during the day of Thursday, July 28, 2016, a number of Shirley Wind residents described what they experienced during this shutdown period when they were not exposed to any wind turbine emissions as compared to what they experience when the Shirley Wind turbines are operating and they are exposed to the wind turbine emissions. They then had their statements notarized.

These case crossover testimonies of several Shirley Wind turbine residents are attached and are being submitted with permission of the authors.

BCCRWE requests that members of the Brown County Board of Health, Human Services Committee, and Board of Supervisors consider the gravity of this evidence and testimony that appears supportive of not only a relationship between wind turbine emissions and adverse health effects to Shirley Wind residents but also confirms that the Brown County Board of Health’s “human health hazard” declaration is appropriate and that remedial action is needed to protect these adversely affected Brown County residents. Prior Shirley Wind resident testimony and acoustical experts’ ILFN test measurements at Shirley Wind, together with the vast body of professional documents that have been submitted, further support the relationship between Shirley Wind turbines and the adverse health effects reported by Shirley Wind residents.

Download original document: “Shirley Wind case crossover testimonies”

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Date added:  September 1, 2016
Health, Noise, OntarioPrint storyE-mail story

Before–after field study of effects of wind turbine noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters

Author:  Jalali, Leila; Bigelow, Philip; et al.

Introduction:

‘Sleep, a natural behavioral state and a vital part of every individual’s life, involves distinct characteristics and many vital physiological changes in the body’s organs that are fundamental for physical and mental health. The physiological processes involve protein biosynthesis, excretion of specific hormones, and memory consolidation, all of which prepare the individual for the next wake period. Fragmented and insufficient sleep can adversely affect general health impacting daytime alertness and performance, quality of life, and health, and potentially lead to serious long-term health effects.

‘Sleep disturbance is considered the most serious nonauditory effect of environmental noise exposure. Harnessing wind energy has resulted in a new source of environmental noise, and wind is one of the fastest growing forms of electricity production worldwide. Canada’s current installed capacity is over 10,000 MW, with an anticipated minimum of 55,000 MW by 2025. This growth in wind energy development is not without controversy, as health effects such as noise annoyance and sleep disturbance have been reported by residents living close to wind developments. Such reports are increasing in Canada and worldwide, despite the adoption of setbacks and other measures that have been effective for other sources of noise pollution. …’

Significant findings reported:

‘[R]eported quality of sleep significantly declined after exposure (P = 0.008). Participants also reported higher levels of stress before bedtime (P = 0.039) and in the morning (P = 0.064), and also reported feeling more sleepy (P = 0.013) in the morning and throughout the day (P = 0.014) after exposure. …

‘Noise difference [between preoperation and operation of turbines] correlated with the difference in the number of awakenings (r = 0.605, P = 0.001), SSC [sleep stage changes to a lighter stage] difference (r = 0.600, P = 0.001), arousal difference (r = 0.551, P = 0.004), and percentage of S2 [stage 2 sleep] difference (r = −0.499, P = 0.009).’

Leila Jalali, Philip Bigelow, Mahmood Gohari, Diane Williams, and Steve McColl, School of Public Health and Health Systems, and Mohammad-Reza Nezhad-Ahmadi, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Noise & Health 2016;18:194-205

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