These postings are provided to help publicize the efforts of affiliated groups and individuals related to industrial wind energy development. Most of the notices posted here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch.
$15,000 goal: Go to Indiegogo site.
Funds will support research on the effect of wind energy on migratory bats and help to conserve them.
Erin Baerwald is a PhD student at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. She did her BSc in Environmental and Conservation Sciences at the University of Alberta and her MSc in Ecology with Dr. Robert Barclay at the University of Calgary. For her graduate research she has been studying the issue of bat deaths at wind farms and needs your help to finish it!
If this is your first time hearing about bat fatalities at wind turbines, here’s what you should know:
Bat deaths at wind turbines became an issue in North America in 2003 when thousands of bats were killed at a wind energy facility in West Virginia. Since then bat fatalities have been reported at almost every modern wind energy facility in North America, and many others in Europe, but fatality rates differ greatly. Some wind farms kill very few bats, but other sites kill large numbers and we think that those sites might be built along bat migration routes.
In North America, ~80% of all bat fatalities are of three species of bat that roost in trees and migrate long-distances: Hoary bats, Eastern red bats, and Silver-haired bats. We recently estimated that from 2000-2011 between 840,000 and 1.7 million bats were killed at wind turbines across North America. This number of fatalities is concerning because bats normally live a long time and reproduce very slowly, only having 1 or 2 pups a year. Because of this, they take a long time to recover from population declines.
I am using genetic information to learn about the migratory behaviours of two of the species most heavily affected by wind turbines, hoary bats and silver-haired bats. As you can imagine, studying migration in small animals that fly at night is very challenging, so we know very little about bat migration. By determining the genetic relatedness of bats collected at wind turbines, my aim is to discover if bats use the same migration routes every year and if mothers teach these migratory routes to their young. We can use this information to help us determine where we should be focusing our conservation efforts.
Want to see some of my previous research? Check out my Google Scholar profile.
This project will give us valuable insight into the migratory behaviours of bats. We will use this knowledge to determine if wind energy facilities impact bat migration and to help us reduce the harm. I previously researched ways to reduce bat fatalities at wind turbines and showed that fatalities can be reduced by up to 60% if turbines remain still in low wind speeds. For this work, along with my other research on the issue, I was recently awarded The William T. Hornaday Award. I am hoping to build on this success with knowledge gained in my current research. Without this funding, I will be unable to complete this project, so the bats and I really need your help!
What I Need
Throughout my PhD I have been very fortunate to have received project funding from some great organizations like The Alberta Conservation Association, Alberta Innovates – Technology Futures, and The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. However, I need $15,000 more in order to cover the costs of genetic work and complete this research project. Despite what TV crime shows have led us to believe, genetics work takes a lot of time and money! I have completed a large portion of the work, but your partnership in this project will allow me to finish the lab work that is needed for the study and conservation of migratory bats across Canada and the US.
Want the nitty-gritty details? I have completed sequencing and analysis of a region of mitochondrial DNA for both species. I have also developed ~20 polymorphic microsatellites markers per species. I still need to genotype all the individuals (~200 per species) at all 20 loci. To do this, we need to run many PCRs and do lots of fragment analysis. If you are familiar with this kind of work, you know that this will take a lot of time and money! That’s where your help comes in.
Every dollar raised will be used to pay for the lab work needed to complete this research project. If I raise more than my goal of $15,000, I will be able to analyze more DNA samples and do an even better job!
Source: National Wind Watch
The people of Scotland deserve the real truth regarding the costs, to them, of Renewables.
If the general public realised how hard the SNP government’s policy on wind farms was (and already is) going to impact their health and hit them in the pocket from so many different sources for NO energy security, NO affordable energy bills and NO guaranteed reduction in CO2 emissions, would they continue to go along with what they are being told by this government and the Renewables industry?
HOW MUCH EVIDENCE IS BEING HIDDEN & ARE WE BEING LIED TO ABOUT ADVERSE EFFECTS?
There is a ‘hierarchy of spin’ pervading all this. Firstly, the industry, then the DECC and finally the Institute of Acoustics who present themselves as the ‘honest brokers’ (statement available). They should not put a desire to keep the DECC happy above a need to protect the health of the public.
Councillors, planners, and statutory authorities such as SNH frequently attend presentations and workshops sponsored and hosted by the Renewables Industry.
Not only are most of these bodies prevented from attending events held by those with concerns about the industry, they are denied the same access to information such as that given at the inaugural Scottish Rural Parliament on 6th November 2013 in Oban, Argyll.
The workshop presentation was given in two parts. The first by Christine Metcalfe was entitled: “ Why the need for reliable information about wind power production is so important” focusing on health/legal directives/Forestry Commission Scotland and covering:
1. Why current wind energy policy is likely to affect the mass (urban) population and covers the immediate health impacts of those forced to live in close proximity to industrial wind turbines including issues such as Low Frequency Noise.
2. The danger of ‘Paying to be Poisoned’ through water contamination from IWT’s. See for example: http://www.windsofjustice.org.uk/2014/12/doctor-claims-scotlands-biggest-windfarm-has-contaminated-public-water-supply-with-cancer-causing-chemical/ and http://stopthesethings.com/2014/08/15/scotlands-toxic-shock-wind-farms-poisoning-neighbours/
(A valuable website to view for information is www.westcorkwind.com which includes a particularly relevant section on CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT. The concept of citizen participation, defined by sociologist Sherry Arnstein as “the redistribution of power that enables the have-not citizens, presently excluded from the political and economic processes, to be deliberately included in the future” is graphically illustrated in the form of ‘Arnstein’s Ladder’.)
Just when we thought it couldn’t get any worse with crippling energy bills, fuel poverty, escalating costs on our goods and services and our local authorities slashing their expenditure, the realisation dawns that there are those living in a complete nightmare with family’s health being compromised by living near industrial wind turbines which are approved by a government with a remit to protect us.
3. How the Forestry Commission Scotland’s role as a government organisation is being used to further government aims against the best interests of the electorate.
4. How we are forced to abide by one set of laws whilst by-passing others. How can a government insist that the EU directives relating to climate change are legally binding, whilst ignoring and by-passing equally legally binding directives which should protect our environment? The UK government is in breach of article 7 of the UN’s Aarhus Convention.
The second presentation was the “The road to ruin” by Stuart Young and has been the subject of a letter to Nicola Sturgeon and a press release.
Links to the presentations are:
Transcript 1: Why-reliable-information-on-wind-power-is-so-important
Transcript 2: The-Road-to-Ruin
Enough misleading claims have been made. First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has a brief opportunity to restore truth and integrity as a mainstay of the Scottish Government in dealing with the people it is elected to serve. It will prove politically and morally dangerous to ignore the urgent need to conduct a review of all Scottish Government pronunciations on renewable energy, scrutinise them for their honesty and accuracy, and restore some moral fibre to the Governance of this country.
1. Winds of Justice is the trademark and name of the web site of a non-governmental organisation promoting environmental protection. The company – Biosphere and Dark Sky Park Protection Ltd. – purpose is, where possible, through representation to give primacy (in the face of competing development interests) to the protection of the Galloway & South Ayrshire Biosphere and the International Dark Sky Park. Also protection to the local environment against potential individual or cumulative environmental intrusion from wind farm and other industrial developments. www.windsofjustice.org.uk
2. Christine Metcalfe journeyed to Geneva in Dec.2012 to attend the Hearing called by the UN’s Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee. This was to defend the complaint lodged on behalf of her Community Council. That complaint was upheld in that the UK was found to be non-compliant with Article 7 of the Convention. Susan Crosthwaite was one of the observers who also spoke at the Hearing.
3. Stuart Young is a committed anti windfarm campaigner, former Chair of Caithness Windfarm Information Forum www.caithnesswindfarms.co.uk and author of the report “Analysis of UK Wind Power Generation November 2008 to December 2010” sometimes known as the “John Muir Report.” http://www.jmt.org/assets/report_analysis%20uk%20wind_syoung.pdf
The environment of Scotland and the UK does not belong to administrators to do with as they wish, such as filling it with wind turbines and pylons. Instead, the environment of Scotland (including land held by Scottish Water and Forestry Commission Scotland) belongs to its people and they have defined rights in law, which must be respected.
In support of the above statement on the ‘hierarchy of spin’ – the Renewables UK approach has been comprehensively debunked in passing by Mike Stigwood in his paper found at http://docs.wind-watch.org/Internoise-2014-Stigwood.pdf titled ‘Initial findings of the UK Cotton Farm Wind Farm long term community noise monitoring project. Proceedings of INTER-NOISE 2014.’
‘This paper outlines the Cotton Farm Wind Farm community noise monitoring project where real time sound and weather data is continuously gathered at a representative community location and provided on-line for anyone to research, evaluate and improve their understanding of wind farm noise. The Cotton Farm WF project compliments measurements made by MAS Environment al (MAS) of amplitude modulation (AM) and other elements of wind farm noise at over 18 sites.’ The IoA Statement is also available.
Re. the SNH remit on water: Catchment management
A catchment is the area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. The area of a catchment could include the slopes of hills, floodplains, lochs and forests. The quality and quantity of waters within a catchment closely reflect a wide range of natural processes and human activities￼which occur throughout the entire catchment, including its ground waters and wetlands.
The waters in a catchment are connected, which means that an activity leading to poor water quality in one part of the catchment may have the potential to affect the health of a much wider area.
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is again the legislation by which SNH prevent deterioration and enhance status of aquatic ecosystems, including groundwater:
• promote sustainable water use;
• reduce pollution;
• contribute to the mitigation of floods and droughts.
Groundwater is an important resource, providing more than one-third of the potable water supply in the British Isles. In addition, it provides essential base-flow to rivers and wetland areas, often supporting important ecological systems. However, groundwater is vulnerable to pollution – especially because it is generally less apparent than surface water and the potential impacts on groundwater are rarely observed and so tend to receive little consideration. Groundwater pollution is problematic because aquifer pollution persists for long periods and is often very difficult and costly to remediate: groundwater pollution prevention measures cost 10– 20 times less than groundwater clean-up and aquifer remediation programmes. Groundwater quality is endangered by construction activities that provide a pollution source or pathway or that significantly vary natural groundwater levels. In contrast to surface water, groundwater is generally more vulnerable to pollution by chemicals, metals, hydrocarbons and salts than by sediments, because particulate pollutants are naturally filtered during infiltration and recharge. Pollution of groundwater is likely to result in the loss of potable or other water supplies, the degradation of receiving river or wetland waters and habitats, and, for offenders, prosecution.
Contacts for further information:
Susan Crosthwaite – 01465 831363
Christine Metcalfe – 01866 844220
Lyndsey Ward – 01463 782997
Stuart Young – 01877 330206
Meetings, Noise, Research, Scotland, Technology •
Source: Institute of Noise Control Engineering—Europe
Radisson Blu Hotel, Glasgow, Scotland | 20 – 23 April 2015
Presentations — oral, poster or part of a workshop session:
- Building integrated wind turbines: Noise, vibration and energy potential analysis – Dymock, Dance & Day
- The DTU Wind Energy WTN Test Facility – Bradley, Mikkelsen & Legg
- On the noise prediction of a serrated DU96 airfoil using the Lattice Boltzmann Method – van der Velden et al
- Experimental comparison of solid and porous trailing edge serrations – Arce, Ragni & Pröbsting
- Noise directivity from a vertical axis wind turbine – Möllerström et al
- Low-Frequency acoustic near-field of wind-turbines – Richarz
- Response to simulated wind farm infrasound including effect of expectation – Tonin, Brett & Colagiuri
- Numerical simulation of airfoil trailing edge serration noise – Zhu & Shen
- A history of wind turbine noise regulations in the Netherlands – van den Berg
- Simulation of broadband trailing-edge noise – Influence of airfoil shape and flow characteristics – Rautmann
- Development of a high-fidelity noise prediction and propagation model for noise generated from wind turbines – Debertshäuser, Shen & Zhu
- How weather governs wind turbine sound propagation – Larsson
- Wind turbines – A changed environment – Palmer
- Modelling of house filter for wind turbine noise – Tachibana, Fukushima & Ochiai
- Prediction of infrasound and low frequency noise propagation for wind turbines, a proposed supplement to ISO9613-2 – Hansen et al
- Reduction of tonalities in wind turbines by means of active vibration absorbers – Engelhardt, Katz & Pankoke
- An overview of recent research on AM and OAM of wind turbine noise – Madsen et al
- An experimental and numerical parameter study on trailing edge blowing for reduced trailing edge noise – Gerhard, Erbslöh & Carolus
- Basic principles and evidences of wind turbine noise generation mechanisms – Bertagnolio et al
- Experimental characterization of stall noise toward its modelling – Bertagnolio et al
- Displacement thickness evaluation for BPM-Type Airfoil-TE prediction models – Saab & Pimenta
- Tonal noise from wind turbines – Evans & Cooper
- Practical measurement method of wind turbine noise – Fukushima, Kobayashi & Tachibana
- Background noise assessment in Utrecht – Balkema & van den Berg
- Low annoyance operation of a wind farm – van den Berg
- Aeroacoustic wind tunnel experiment for serration design optimisation and its application to a wind turbine rotor – Hurault, Gupta & Vronsky
- Progress report on synthesis of wind turbine noise and infrasound – Walker & Celano
- Impact of windturbine noise on local residents in mountainous terrain at Lista Windfarm, South Norway – Vaagene & Larsen
- Stationary wind turbine infrasound emissions and propagation loss measurements – Huson
- Constraints imposed by and limitations of IEC 61672 for the measurement of wind farm sound emissions – Huson
- Perception and annoyance of low frequency noise versus infrasound in the context of wind turbine noise – Hansen et al
- Experimental study of relationship between amplitude modulation and detection threshold of wind turbine noise – Yoon et al
- Wind noise estimation functions for low frequency sound measuring in natural wind by different roughness classification – Kamiakito et al
- The Institute of Acoustics’ Working Group on Amplitude Modulation in Wind Turbine Noise – Progress towards an agreed rating and assessment metric – Irvine
- Sound source localization on wind turbines using particle velocity sensors – Serraris & Korbasiewicz
- Noise protection regulations for wind turbines in Germany – Bauerdorff & Myck
- Indoor simulation of wind turbine amplitude modulated noise – Fernández & Burdisso
- Measurements demonstrating mitigation of far-field AM from wind turbines – Cand & Bullmore
- Wind turbine noise propagation – Results of numerical modelling techniques to investigate specific scenarios – Sims et al
- Automated wind farm noise measurement systems with feature analysis – Jiggins et al
- Prediction of variability in wind turbine noise calculations – Cotté & Tian
- Measured 10 m height wind speeds and shear corrected turbine noise predictions – Roberts & Shepherd
- Affective response to amplitude modulated wind turbine sound – von Hünerbein & Piper
- Source sound power level uncertainty – Woodward, Roberts & Shepherd
- Findings of the Council of Canadian Academies Expert Panel on Wind Turbine Noise and Human Health – Howe
- Can we really predict wind turbine noise with only one point source? – Ecotière
- State of the art and new perspectives for the development of noise regulation of wind farms – Schild & Chavand
- Impact of the siting of a rooftop mounted small wind turbine on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance – Volkmer, Gerhard & Carolus
- Modeling of ground and atmospheric effects on wind turbine noise – Tian & Cotté
- From good practice guidance to solving amplitude modulation for wind turbine noise assessment in the UK – Perkins
- Addressing the issue of enhanced amplitude modulation – Cassidy & Bass
- Propagation of noise from wind farms according to the Good Practice Guide – a sensitivity analysis – Birchby, Cassidy & Bass
- Numerical investigation of the aeroacoustics of small vertical axis wind turbines – Weber et al
- Methods for assessing background sound levels during post-construction compliance monitoring within a community – Duncan et al
- Wind turbines and infrasound: Monitoring techniques – Bonsma & McCabe
- Metrological validation of the DIN ISO 9613-2 propagation model concerning wind turbine noise – Engelen
- Compliance isn’t everything – Large & Stigwood
- Cotton Farm Wind Farm – Long term community noise monitoring project – 2 years on – Stigwood, Large & Stigwood
- Noise from wind turbines and health effects – Investigation of wind turbine noise spectra – Søndergaard
- Current challenges of assessing excess amplitude modulation character in wind turbine noise during EIA/planning phase – Di Napoli & Lehto
- Measuring coherent wind turbine infrasound – Vanderkooy & Mann
- Noise optimized wind park operation – Petitjean et al
- Dispersion of octave band data for sound emission measurements and their impact on sound immission predictions – Kaufmann & Kock
- Investigation into the influence of windscreens during sound emission measurements in accordance with IEC 61400-11 ed. 3.0 – Kaufmann & Kock
- Observation of vibration velocity at many parts of wind turbine and relational analysis with propagated sound to surroundings – Iwase et al
- A system for measuring wind turbine infrasound emissions – Annan et al
- Appropriate role for the acoustical consultant – Barnes
- An amplitude modulation noise measurement and analysis for IEEE P2400 Standard Project – Xiang et al
- Overview of IEEE standard development on amplitude modulation noise measurement – Xue et al
- Efficient prediction of wind turbine noise in the frequency domain using Amiet’s theory – Sinayoko & Hurault
- ALARM: Research on wind turbine tonalities – Vanhollebeke, Sonja & Ribbentrop
- Research into a continuous wind farm noise monitoring system – Delaire et al
- Study of secondary wind shield performance in the field – Griffin et al
- On the overlap region between wind turbine infrasound and infrasound from other sources – Leventhall
- Relationship between exposure to wind turbine noise and subjective and objective sleep disorder in southern part in Japan – Pilot study using new technology in sleep monitoring watch “actigraphy” – Morimatsu et al
- Direct experience of low frequency noise and infrasound within a windfarm community – Swinbanks
- A new method for determining the wind turbine noise based on the constant divergence of sound pressure level – Buzduga & Buzduga
- Downwind propagation in low level wind jet conditions – Makarewicz
- All over the road map: Health Canada, wind turbines and harm to human health – Krogh & Horner
- Massachusetts research study on wind turbine acoustics: Overview and conclusions – McPhee et al
- An investigation on the strength of Other Amplitude Modulation in wind farms in Southern Ontario – Ashtiani et al
- An investigation on the effect of wind shear on wind turbine noise emission – Jozwiak, Halstead & Munro
- Field comparison of IEC 61400-11 Wind turbines – Part 11: Acoustic noise measurement techniques: Edition 3.0 and Edition 2.1 – Jozwiak, Munro & Halstead
- Spectral discrete probability density function of measured turbine noise in the far field – Ashtiani & Denison
- Influence of vertical temperature gradient on long-range noise propagation from wind turbines – Bigot & Slaviero
- Icing of wind turbines and the effect on noise – Long-term measurements – Appelqvist & Arbinge
- Temperature gradient effects on sound propagation from a wind farm – Lenti et al
- Wind turbine noise measurement: An efficient and reliable method for extracting the wind turbine noise out of the background noise – Tréfois & Dasse
- Comparative analysis of wind turbine noise assessment and rating procedures in the UK, France and the Netherlands – Goemé
- Sensitivity analysis test on the Italian ISPRA methodology to assess noise impact of operational wind farms – Fredianelli et al
- Aeroacoustic simulation of an airfoil in turbulent inflow – Illg, Lutz & Kramer
- Acoustic impact assessment of wind farms in Spain: The new approach of the Andalusian regulation – Grilo
- Three common misconceptions on wind turbine noise: Myth & reality – Drobietz et al
- The use of cumulative wind turbine noise related planning conditions – Mackay
- Directivity attenuation coefficients – Research based on long term measurements – Coulon
- On the measurement and prediction of wind-turbine trailing-edge noise – Stalnov, Chaitanya & Joseph
- On the measurement and prediction of wind-turbine swishing noise – Cheong, Stalnov & Joseph
- Experience with IEC 61400-11: Wind turbine measurement technique – Søndergaard
- Background noise map creation through a CFD wind model – Bartolazzi & Marletti
- Level fluctuations in wind turbine blade tones – Leventhall & Walker
- What is the listening environment that is experienced by most wind farm neighbours? – Hayes
- Kingston Massachusetts Wind Turbine Acoustical Study – Cox et al
- Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low frequency noise produced by wind turbines – Berger et al
- Two standard approaches in date analysis of wind turbine noise measurement – Curcuruto et al
- Low frequency amplitude modulation related to Doppler frequency shift: An experimental study of a 101m diameter wind turbine in a Swiss valley – Falourd et al
- Doppler analysis and processing for the localization of low frequency tonal sound sources on blades: An experimental approach – Falourd, Marmaroli & Bollinger
- Development of the Queensland Wind Farm Code and Guidelines – Terlich
- The mechanism causing amplitude modulation noise – Bradley
- Assessment of tonal components contained in wind turbine noise in immission areas – Kobayashi et al
- Health and well-being related to wind turbine noise exposure: Summary of results – Michaud
- Noise reduction for small wind turbine by trailing edge modification – Fujisawa, Yamagata & Saito
- Environmental impact assessment and management plan on wind turbine noise in South Korea – Park
- Wind farm noise optimisation tool – Fotheringham & Gemmell
- Small wind turbines – Comparison of acoustic noise measurements in accordance to IEC 61400-11 Ed. 3 to BWEA Small Wind Turbine Guideline – Broneske
Source: National Wind Watch
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Source: Emily Dickinson
|‘Hope’ is the thing with feathers—
That perches in the soul—
And sings the tune without the words—
And never stops—at all—
And sweetest—in the Gale—is heard—
I’ve heard it in the chillest land—